Christopher Lowrey, MD(email@example.com)Learning objectives:1.
Be able to recognize normal human peripheral blood cells.
Understand how hematopoietic stem cells give rise to mature blood cells.
Be able to explain how sites of hematopoiesis change during development.
Understand how hypoxia stimulates production of red blood cells.
Understand the role of hematopoietic growth factors in regulating blood cell production.
Understand the rationale for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
: “Overview of hematopoiesis and stem cell function.”
The most important concepts for you to know are underlined in the text of these notes.
I. Types of cells in the blood.
The cellular portion of blood is composed of seven distinct types of cells (Figure 1):a.
Red cells – carry oxygenb.
Platelets – participate in clot formation, a critical component of hemostasis.c.
Lymphocytes (T and B cells) – respond to viral and other types of infection.d.
Monocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils – respond to bacterial, fungal, and parasiticinfections.
identifying the different types of WBC’s
: lymphocytes generally have small roundnuclei, minimal cytoplasm and no granules, monocytes have more cytoplasm and an indented nucleus,basophils have intense blue granules, eosinophils have intense red granules that are stained by the dye“eosin”, mature neutrophils have 3 “lobes” and pale granules, immature granulocytes are known as “bands”with a nucleus that has not yet separated into 3 lobes.
Clinical Correlation – The Complete Blood Count (CBC)WBC –
total number of all white blood cells per cubic mm (i.e., microliter).
Platelet Count -
total number of platelets per cubic mm (i.e., microliter).
Hemoglobin & Hematocrit
– these parameters are typically used instead of the “red blood cell count”to quantify the number of red cells. See figure 2.
Red Blood CellPlateletLymphocyteMonocyteEosinophilBasophilNeutrophil (mature)Neutrophil (immature)Figure 1. Normal Human Blood Cells
Revised September 2009September 25, 2009