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Pathanatomy Colloq 2 - (Unit 7 - 13)

Pathanatomy Colloq 2 - (Unit 7 - 13)

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Unit 7: Adaptation and regeneration
Identify most frequent cases of compensation hypertrophy in organswith muscle wall.
-Urinary bladder-Heart-Vessels2.
What is organization? Which processes are observed in it?
-Organisation is formation of connective tissue, healing around dead tissueor exogenous agents, and replacement of necrosis, exudates, thrombus &hematoma by connective tissue3.
Name local atrophy varieties progressing in pathology.
-dysfunctional-neurotic atrophy-ischemic-chemical-pressure-physical4.
Name steps of wound healing by secondary intention.
-Traumatic edema, demarcation of purulent exudative inflammation withnecrotic fibrin-Secondary cleaning of the wound, large amounts of granulative tissue areformed-Appearance of regenerative tissue (scar formation5.
Specify manifestations of pathologic repair.
What is hyperplasia?
(p=2)-Increase in number of cells-Increase in structural-functional elements and intracellular structure of cells7.
Define atrophy.
(p=3)-Atrophy is an adaptive response, characterized by a decrease in the sizeand function of cells, tissues and organs-Shrinkage of cellular size is due to loss of cellular substance8.
Define types of hypertrophy according to the mechanism of thebeginning and with the signification for organism.
-Neurohumoral hypertrophy-Repair hypertrophy-Compensatory (working) hypertrophy-Vicar hypertrophy9.
Name types of general atrophy according to etiology.
-Alimentary-Tumour-Hypophyseal (pituitary)-Cerebral-Chronic infection10.
What is the form of repair named „repair
-It is the developing process of substitution hypertrophy which consist of special tissues, that can carry out repair with the help of hyperplastic cellsor hyperplastic tissue & hypertrophic cells11.
What is metaplasia?
(p=2)-Transformation of 1 tissue type to another, usually of the same broad class12.
What structural levels are compensation and adaptive processesrealized on?
Patient died of decompensation of hypertrophied heart (mass of heart is 500g).
During postmortem examination “tiger”
heart wasfound. Give an explanation of decompensation mechanisms.
-Hypertrophy of the heart leads to an imbalance of oxygen demand andsupply to it-subsequently, chronic hypoxia of the myocardium, fatty dystrophy,destruction of mitochondria and increase in cytosolic calcium occurs-Eventually the heart decompensates14.
What are the tissues of the heart exposed tohypertrophy and hyperplasia withenlargement f heart?
(p=4)-Myocardium-Connective tissue stroma-Intramural vessels-Neural apparatus15.
What is carnification?
(p=3)-Carnification is the appearance of connective tissue in the alveolar spaceas a result of pneumonia16.
What is regeneration?
(p=2)-Regeneration is the replacement of injured cells with new cells andreconstitution of function17.
Name organs with regenerative hypertrophyin primary form of intracellular hyperplasiaof ultrastructures and enlargement of cellular sizes.
What is brown atrophy of myocard?
(p=3)-It is the general atrophy of the heart, with decrease of the size of themyocardium, accumulation of pigments of lipofuscin in cardiomyocytes-developed during cachexia19.
Specify periods (phases) of compensation and adaptive reactions.
-Beginning-Consolidation-Exhaustion (decompensation)20.
Give the definition of working hypertrophy.
(p=2)-It is hypertrophy characterised by increased cell size due to increasedfunctional demand of the organ21.
Specify types of regeneration.
What is atrophy organs term with deposit of lipofuscin in pigmentin its parenchyma?
(p=1)-Brown atrophy23.
What is vicar hypertrophy?
(p=1)-It is the hypertrophy of twin organs when 1 is removed or becomes non-functional24.
Give explanation of the dystrophic and sclerotic processes inhypertrophied myocard. use facts of electronic microscopy in youranswer.
-Hypertrophied cells have increased oxygen demand over supply causinghypoxia: fatty dystrophy-Hypertrophy of the nucleus, increase in ER vesicles and injury to themyocardium with organisation leads to cardiosclerosis25.
Specify stage names of functional states in hypertrophied heart.
-Tonogenic dilatation (compensation)-Myogenic dilatation (decompensation)26.
What is the term of liver with the atrophy and lipofuscinaccumulation in hepatocytes?
(p=1)-Brown atrophy of the liver27.
Name of forms in wound healing.
(p=4)-Healing by first intention-Healing by secondary intention-Healing under crust-Healing with epithelisation28.
What is keloid?
(p=2)-It is a type of skin scar characterised by and overgrowth of fibrous tissue inthe scar
Unit8: Exudative Inflammation
Name pleura, peritoneum, muscle, skin inflammations.
-Pleuritis, Peritonitis, Myositis, Dermatitis
What is
inflammation? [give Davidovsky‟s
-It is a complex, local, cyclic, vascular, mesenchymal reaction of theorganismdeveloped during the process of evolution-This is a response to lesion, leading to the elimination of initial causativeagent with regeneration of tissue as the completion phase3.
What is abcess?
(p=5)-It is a focal suppurative inflammation with breakdown of tissue andformation of a cavity enclosed by a pyogenic membrane4.
Name types of exuadative inflammation.
What is empyema?
(p=3)-It is a form of suppurative inflammation of the wall of an anatomicalcavity (e.g. peritoneal cavity) with accumulation pus in the cavity6.
What is phlegmona?
(p=3)-It is a diffuse purulent exudative inflammation of friable connective tissue7.
In postmortem child examination there was found very increasedheart with fluid accumulation in pericardial sac, thick epicardiumcovered with friable gray colour and spongeous form. Name theprocess. Give figurative name of the process of this case. Specifydiseases and conditions when this process is observed.
-Name: Fibrinous pericarditis-Figurative name: Heairy heart-Conditions: Uremia, Rheumatism,Complication of TB, Transmural myocardial infarction, fibrinous lobarpneumonia8.
What do prefixes „peri‟ & „para‟ mean in
terms, designatinginflammations? Give 1 example of each.
-Peri: Inflammation of the serous membrane of an organ (perimetritis)-Para: Inflammation fatty tissue surrounding an organ (paranephritis)9.
Give the definition of exudative inflammation.
-It is a form of inflammation, characterised by the predominance of exudation over alteration and proliferation10.
Give terms of the inflammation of arterial wall and internal,external and idle arterial membranes.
-Arterial wall: arteritis-Internal: endarteritis-Middle: Mesarteritis-External Periarteritis11.
What is pus? Give its composition.
(p=5)-Pus is an inflammatory exudate which contains leukocytes (mostlyneutrophils), parenchymal cell debris, microorganisms and pus bodies12.
Mucous membrane of child‟s larynx is
edematous, hyperemic withremovable gray film. Name of the process. Specify the disease with theprocess observed. What does the process result in?
-Process: Croupous laryngitis-Disease: Diphtheria-Result: Asphyxia13.
Give terms of the inflammation in liver, stomach mucous, in largeintestine and urinary bladder.
-Liver: Hepatitis-Stomach mucous: Gastritis-Large intestines: Colitis-Urinary bladder: Cystitis14.
During postmortem examination you can see: thigh bone with localdestruction of cortical coat, marrow channel filled with green purulentmass with free scraps of the bone. Name process in the bone and thesefree scraps of the bone.
(p=2)-Process: Osteomyelitis-Name of scraps: Sequestra15.
Name the inflammation in mucous membrane of uterus corpus, incellular fatty tissue of the thorax, in middle membrane of the aorta,mucous membrane of nose.
-Endometritis, Mediastinitis, Mesaortitis,rhinitis (respectively)16.
Name forms of acute catarrh in mucous membrane.
What is the term for suppuration process?
-(Purulent) Inflammation18.
Specify biologic etiology of inflammation.
-Viruses-Bacteria-Fungi-Protozoa-Immune complexes-Animal parasites19.
Name purulent inflammation in the tissue of nail couch.
What is the name of internal membrane in the abscess?
-Pyogenic membrane
Unit 9: Productive Inflammation andImmunopathological Processes
Specify cell taking part in production inflammation.
-Epithelioid cells-Macrophages-Plasma Cells-Fibroblasts-Lymphoid cells-Histiocytes2.
Identify definition of production inflammation.
-It is a type of inflammation characterised by infiltration and proliferationof cells from histiogenous and hematogenous origins; with a predominanceof the process of proliferation over alteration and exudation3.
What granulomas are named specifically?
-Granulomas have special concrete morphologic structure caused by specialtypes of infections agents and often have necrosis in the central part4.
What morphological sign predominates inthe source of productive proliferation?
(p=1)-Proliferation of cells5.
In microscopic examination of the heart, in myocardial stromainflammatory cellular infiltrate are found. They consisted of lymphoidcells, histiocytes, fibroblasts and plasma cells. What diagnosis follows?
-Interstitial productive myocarditis6.
Give names of possible consequences of tuberculous granulomas.
-Total necrosis-Sclerosis-Calcification-Encapsulation7.
Present manifestation form of productive inflammation.
-Interstitial-With polyp formation-Granuloma-Inflammation around animal parasites8.
What is the nature of autoimmune reaction progress inimmunopathologic processes?
-It is immunity against own tissue(ownantigen), and causes rejection of transplantation and hypersensitivity9.
Which type of immune reaction progress inimmunopathologic process?
(p=2)-Humoral Immunity-Cellular Immunity
Unit 10: Mesenchymal Tumour
Name tumors of skeletal and smoothmuscles.
(p=4)-Skeletal: Rhabdomyoma, rhabdomyosarcoma-Smooth: Leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma
During postmortem examination, the tumor is found in the area of left thigh. The tumor
looks like “fish flesh”. The tumor grows from
 thigh bone, with invasion in the surrounding tissue. Diagnose itaccording to gross evidences. What is the spread pathway of this tumor?Where does primary metastasis localize? What is manifestation of itsgeneral influence of organism?
-Diagnosis: Osteosarcoma-Spread: Hematogenous pathway-Primary metastasis: lung-Influence: Cachexia3.
What is biologic atypism of tumor characterized by?
-Progressive growth-Autonomous-Infiltrative-Gives metastasis-Able to be transplanted from 1 host to another in experiments4.
During postmortem examination, the tumor is detected in the uterus.The tumor consists of polymorphic atypical smooth muscle cells. Namethis tumor, its spread pathways, localization of primary metastases, thecause of death.
-Diagnosis: Leiomyosarcoma-Spread: Hematogenous pathway-Metastasis: Lung-Death: Hemorrhage and cachexia5.
Specify pathway of tumour spread.
Name all possible variants of tumour growth.
During histology examination, there are found growth of filamentswith collagen fibres and cells of connective tissues with predominanceover fiber structures and tissue atypism signs in derma of the skin.There is marked border of the above mentioned changes. What is yourdiagnosis? Name growth type and malignant analogue.
-Diagnosis: Fibroma-Growth: Expansive-Malignant analog: Fibrosarcoma8.
What is the capillary hemangioma? Describe its microscopicstructure
. (p=4)
-Hemangioma is a benign tumour of capillary blood vessels-It is lobulated, unencapsulated, aggregated in closely packed thin-wallcapillaries, lined with several levels of flattened endothelium-Separated by scant connective tissue stroma9.
Name localisation of leiomyomas according to layers of uterus walls.
What is fibroma?
(p=2)-It is a benign tumour of fibrous connective tissue11.
The patient died of malignant tumor originated from thigh bone.Where first metastasis are to be looked for?
What is fibrosarcoma? Describe its microscopic structure andnature of growth according to surrounding tissues.
-Fibrosarcoma is a malignant tumor of connective tumour.-Microscopically: Constructed from pleomorphic atypical connective tissuewith hyperchromatic nuclei -Growth: Invasive13.
Name general tumour groups according to degree of the maturity.
-Malignant (less mature)-Benign (more mature)14.
What is sarcoma?
(p=2)-It is a malignant tumour derived from mesenchymal tissues15.
What is anaplasia (cataplasia)?
(p=1)-It is the reversion of differentiation of tumours from a higher level to lowerlevel
Unit 11: Epithelial Derived Tumours
During microscopic examination, the tumour is found in thebronchial biopsy evidence. It is constructed with nest accumulations of atypical squamous cells with features of 
“pearls”. Name the tumour
and explain the possibility of tumour onset in this construction of bronchi.
-Name: Squamous cell carcinoma of the bronchus (bronchiogeniccarcinoma) plus keratinisation-Onset: Metaplasia from chronic bronchitis + chronic inflammation2.
Specify microscopic picture of squamous carcinoma.
-Multiple nest-like structures consisting of atypical polygonal cells withkeratinisation in
the structural centre called „keratin pearls‟
Name ovarian malignant tumours.
(p=5)-Arrhenoblastoma-Cellular granulation carcinoma-Cystadenocarcinoma-
Brener‟s carcin
oma-Malignant teratoma4.
Name organs from which metastases are in bones.
-Tumour of lungs, mammilary glands, prostate glands, kidneys, thyroidglands5.
Where are the first hematogenous and lymphogenous metastases of carcinoma in stomach looked for?
-Hematogenous: liver-Lymphogenous: Lymph nodes of small and large curvature of stomach6.
Explain the progress of aspiration pneumonia of the patient withcarcinoma of esophagus.
-Formation of fistula between trachea and esophagus and aspiration of vomitus/food into the lung will cause aspiration pneumonia7.
What is carcinoma? Specify most typical pathway of carcinoma todiffer from sarcoma.
-Carcinoma is a malignant epithelial-derived tumour with cellular andtissue atypism-which gives metastases through lymphogenic and hematogenic pathways,-more commonly lymphogenic8.
Name most typical localisation of esophageal carcinoma.
-Proximally: Cricoid cartilage-Medially: Crossing of the left principal bronchus-Distally: Where the esophagus penetrates the diaphragm9.
Name gross (macroscopical) types of stomach carcinoma.
-Polyp-like-Plaque-like-Fungus-like-Diffuse-Flat-Excavated (Ulcer-like)10.
During postmortem examination metastases of the carcinoma in theliver are found. They are considered first hematogenous metastases of tumor. What are organs to be searched for primary tumour?
Specify preinvasive form of endocervical carcinoma in the uterus.
-Cancer in situ12.
The ovary has been supplied as a biopsy samples. It is presented bygross cyst about 20cm in diameter with a fluid and heavy papillaryprojection with white cauliflower tissue remainder. Microscopicallypapillaries of the tumour are covered by columnar epithelium withnuclear hyperchromia and mitosis. On the separate sections adenouscomplex grows through cystic wall. Specify the tumour.
-Tumour of papillary cystadenoma13.
What is the term for malignant tumour of epithelial origin?

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