recognised pattern. However, on the SE ace,a possible crescent alignment comprising othree cupmarks may exist. On the SW ace,partly obscured by the leaning capstone thecupmark patterns are arranged into threegroups o three, two o which orming acrescent, the other a triangle (Figure 4). In-terestingly, the artist was only concernedwith decorating the lower section o theupright.
In comparison with thirteen other megalithicsites in Caernarvonshire recognised by Powell
. (1969, 302), the Cae Dyni site is rela-tively small, its size can be compared withnearby sites o Penarth and Four Crosses.The architecture, in particular the way thecapstone was placed on top o the uprightsdoes resemble small rectangular chamberedmonuments elsewhere in north-western Eu-rope such as the Bohuslän monuments insouth-west Sweden (Tilley 1999). We do ad-vocate though that there is a direct culturallink between Cae-Dyni and the monumentso Bohuslän. However, the architecture andpossible date or this monument thoughdoes suggests that Cae-Dyni may be a hybridmonument that incorporates both Late Neo-lithic and Early Bronze Age traits. The traitsinclude the chamber, uprights and capstonebeing constructed above ground and there-ore visible and this architecture being placedinto an oval or rectangular cairn mound. TheEarly Bronze trait comprises the constructiono a well-dened rectangular stone lined cist.It is probable though that all components oCae-Dyni are Neolithic.There are a limited number o monumentsin Wales that are similar in architecture andpossess an identical landscape position. Oneo these is Bedd Taliesin within the parish oLlanhangel, overlooking the Dovey estuaryin Carmarthenshire (SN 6724 9126). This mon-ument, located outside any o the Neolithiccore areas in Wales comprises a rectangularchamber with a displaced capstone that isset within an oval or long mound. Locatedaround the capstone and the chamber area number o loose sub-angular and angularstone blocks which either orm part o thecairn (Nash 2006). According to the RoyalCommission o Ancient and Historical Monu-ments (Wales) this monument dates to theBronze Age. However, its sheer megalithicappearance suggests a Neolithic date. Surpris-ingly, there has been very little archaeologicalinvestigation o this site. Approximately 4kmto the sout-east o the site are the remnantso a Bronze Age landscape, including a stand-ing stone (SN 689 877). A large number ocairns are also located 2km to the north andeast o the monument on Foel Goch thatoverlook the Dovey estuary.Despite recent detailed attention Cae-Dynihas been included in the inventory o Cum-mings and Whittle (2004, 126). Their researchocusing on
(i.e. what can be seenrom a selected number o Welsh Neolithicmonuments) indicate that the viewshed oCae-Dyni includes views o the Cambriancoast (to the south) as ar as Borth and thesouthern extent o the Llyn Peninsula (to thewest) as ar as Abersoch. The view rom thismonument also includes a vast area o openwater, covering an area o 884 km2. However,it is probably not what can be seen rom themonument but more importantly where inthe landscape can the monument be seen.I the latter applies then the data or theview shed is great decreased to include theimmediate slopes that surround the monu-ment to the north, east and west, and maybe views o the monument rom the sea.However, the monument cannot be seenrom the beach or the shingle slopes o theoreshore. I one is assume that these sitesare special and located in order to be hidden(i.e. with a covering mound) the viewshedhypothesis cannot apply to this or any otherNeolithic burial monument. The mound, its[inorganic] architecture and the people whouse it create a powerul and secret world andpart the secrecy is the way sites like Cae-Dyniare located. Metaphorically, they can be seen(i one knows where they are) and not seeni one is outside the circle o knowledge.Whatever the date, there is clear evidencethat Cae-Dyni represents a multi-phased site.Apart orm the capstone being moved romits original position, probably the result oantiquarian investigations, one o the up-rights possess hitherto undiscovered rock-artcomprising 13 cupmarks. These were eithermade prior to, during or ater the monumentwas abandoned. It is our view that thesecarving are made ater the monument wasconstructed, possibly by Bronze Age cults us-ing the monument ollowing its primary useas a place o interring human remains.Cupmarks are present throughout most oAtlantic Europe and may represent a univer-sal meaning. However, it is not clear whatthese carvings represent. Furthermore, it isdicult to suggest their stratigraphic re-lationship with their host monument. It isclear however that cupmarks, in particularare ound on Bronze Age monuments andcan thereore to be considered to be o thisdate or later, representing possibly BronzeAge cult practices (Schoknecht 1986). How-ever, recent excavations by Waddington
. (2005) have urther extended the datingrange that suggests that cupmarks and as-sociated carvings could predate the BronzeAge. A similar view is held by Bradley (1997,57–65). Burgess has suggested that signicantstones with cupmarks may have been reused(1989-90), either incorporated into monu-ments or later, taken away and re-erectedas standing stones. A case in question is thereuse o a ornately carved standing stonethat was broken into three sections andwas incorporated into two passage graves– Table de Marchands and Gavr’inis – bothlocated on the Gul o Morbian, Brittany.Whatever their date, cup-and-ring carvingscan be considered a means o statementing,either a monument or a part o landscape.This statementing can be either made byan individual, representing his or her ritualneeds or collectively, the carving represent-ing a group. The Cae-Dyni monument alongwith ten other Neolithic burial monuments inNorth Wales that either have cupmarks or onrock outcropping nearby, probably representsa multi-phased that equally addresses traitsthat are present in both the Neolithic andEarly Bronze Age (Table 1).
George NashDepartment o Archaeology & Anthropol-ogy, University o Bristol Abby GeorgeLaurie Waite
Figure 4. Location of the cupmarks on the south-westernupright Plate 2. Cupmarks present on the south-western upright