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MB_0034-1Ratings: (0)|Views: 525|Likes: 7

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/40684609/MB-0034-1

02/16/2013

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Q 1. Give examples of specific situations that would call for the following types of research,explaining why – a) Exploratory research b) Descriptive research c) Diagnostic research d)Evaluation research. (10 marks).Exploratory Research

It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem aboutwhich the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this researchmay be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or tomake a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or todetermine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. “At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in thesituations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables.”

Descriptive Study

It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research.It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristicsof a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of therange of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of ayoung science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It canhighlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. Theinformation obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning socialaction program.

Diagnostic Study

It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discoveringwhat is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying thecauses of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discoveringand testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population,adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables,statistical analysis and test of significance.

Evaluation Studies

It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on thedevelopment of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantityof an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for itssuccess. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It isconcerned also with change over time.

Q 2.In the context of hypothesis testing, briefly explain the difference between a) Null andalternative hypothesis b) Type 1 and type 2 error c) Two tailed and one tailed test d)Parametric and non parametric tests. (10 marks).

Set 1MB0034

Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis

In the context of statistical analysis, we often talk null and alternative hypothesis. If we are tocompare method A with method B about its superiority and if we proceed on the assumption that both methods are equally good, then this assumption is termed as null hypothesis. As againstthis, we may think that the method A is superior, it is alternative hypothesis. Symbolically presented as: Null hypothesis = H

0

and Alternative hypothesis = H

a

Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to the hypothesis mean(µ H

0

) = 100. Then we would say that the null hypotheses are that the population mean is equalto the hypothesized mean 100 and symbolical we can express as: H

0

: µ= µ H

0

=100If our sample results do not support these null hypotheses, we should conclude that somethingelse is true. What we conclude rejecting the null hypothesis is known as alternative hypothesis.If we accept H

0,

then we are rejecting H

a

and if we reject H

0

, then we are accepting H

a

. For H

0

:µ= µ H

0

=100, we may consider three possible alternative hypotheses as follows:

Type I & Type II Errors

In the context of testing of hypothesis there are basically two types of errors that researchersmake. We may reject H

0

when H

0

is true & we may accept H

0

when it is not true. The former isknown as Type I & the later is known as Type II. In other words, Type I error mean rejection of hypothesis which should have been accepted & Type II error means accepting of hypothesiswhich should have been rejected. Type I error is donated by α (alpha), also called as level of significance of test; and Type II error is donated by β(beta).The probability of Type I error is usually determined in advance and is understood as the levelof significance of testing the hypothesis. If type I error is fixed at 5%, it means there are aboutchances in 100 that we will reject H

0

when H

0

is true. We can control type I error just by fixing itat a lower level. For instance, if we fix it at 1%, we will say that the maximum probability of committing type I error would only be 0.01.

Set 1MB0034

But with a fixed sample size, n when we try to reduce type I error, the probability of committingtype II error increases. Both types of errors can not be reduced simultaneously. There is a trade-off in business situations, decision-makers decide the appropriate level of type I error byexamining the costs of penalties attached to both types of errors. If type I error involves time &trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted, where as type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned, then in such a situation one should prefer a type I error to a type II error means takinga chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned, then in sucha situation one should prefer a type II error. As a result one must set very high level for type Ierror in one’s testing techniques of a given hypothesis. Hence, in testing of hypothesis, one mustmake all possible effort to strike an adequate balance between Type I & Type II error.

Two Tailed Test & One Tailed Test

In the context of hypothesis testing these two terms are quite important and must be clearlyunderstood. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if, say, the sample mean is significantlyhigher or lower than the hypnotized value of the mean of the population. Such a testinappropriate when we haveH

0

: µ= µ H

0

and H

a

: µ≠µ H

0

which may µ>µ H

0

or µ<µ H

0

. If significance level is % and the two-tailed test to be applied, the probability of the rejection areawill be 0.05 (equally split on both tails of curve as 0.025) and that of the acceptance region will be 0.95. If we take µ = 100 and if our sample mean deviates significantly from µ, in that case weshall accept the null hypothesis. But there are situations when only one-tailed test is consideredappropriate. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to test, say, whether the populationmean in either lower than or higher than some hypothesized value.

Parametric and Non parametric tests

The hypothesis testing determines the validity of the assumption (technically described as nullhypothesis) with a view to choose between the conflicting hypotheses about the value of the population hypothesis about the value of the population of a population parameter. Hypothesistesting helps to secede on the basis of a sample data, whether a hypothesis about the populationis likely to be true or false. Statisticians have developed several tests of hypothesis (also knownas tests of significance) for the purpose of testing of hypothesis which can be classified as:

•

Parametric tests or standard tests of hypothesis ;

•

Non Parametric test or distribution – free test of the hypothesis.Parametric tests usually assume certain properties of the parent population from which we drawsamples. Assumption like observations come from a normal population, sample size is large,assumptions about the population parameters like mean, variants etc must hold good before parametric test can be used. But there are situation when the researcher cannot or does not wantto make assumptions. In such situations we use statistical methods for testing hypothesis whichare called non parametric tests because such tests do not depend on any assumption about the parameters of parent population. Besides, most non-parametric test assumes only nominal or original data, where as parametric test require measurement equivalent to at least an intervalscale. As a result non-parametric test needs more observation than a parametric test to achievethe same size of Type I & Type II error.

Q 3. Explain the difference between a causal relationship and correlation, with an exampleof each. What are the possible reasons for a correlation between two variables? ( 10marks).

Set 1MB0034

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