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Table Of Contents

1 Fundamentals of the Karl Fischer titration
1.1 An historic overview
1.2 The Karl Fischer chemical reaction
1.3 Consequences for practical applications
2 Volumetric and Coulometric Karl Fischer Analyses
2.1 Volumetric KF reagents
2.1.1 One-component KF reagent
2.1.2 Two-component KF reagent
2.1.3 Pyridine-containing reagents
2.1.4 Special reagents for aldehydes and ketones
2.1.5 Karl Fischer reagents with ethanol
2.2 Coulometric KF analysis
2.2.1 KF coulometry
2.2.2 Stoichiometry of the coulometric KF rection
2.2.3 Iodine generation
2.2.4 Generator electrode without diaphragm
2.2.5 Limitations for the use of the cell without diaphragm
3 Titration control and end point determination
3.1 Indication
3.1.1 Principle of bipotentiometric indication
3.1.2 End point and polarization current
3.2 Reaction rate
3.3 Stirring speed and dispersion of the volumetric KF titrant
3.4 Control parameters in the volumetric KF titration
3.4.2 The minimum and maximum dosing rate
3.4.3 The Cautious start
3.4.4 Polarization current and end point
3.4.6 General recommendations
3.5 Control paramaters in the coulometric KF Analysis
3.6 Termination parameters for both coulometric and volumetric KF titration
4. The Karl Fischer titration
4.1 The influence of atmospheric humidity (drift determination)
4.1.1 Titration stand
4.1.2 The drift
4.2 Working with the coulometric KF instruments
4.2.1 Filling the coulometric cell
4.2.2 When do you have to replace the electrolyte?
4.2.3 Secure draining and filling of the titration cell: SOLVENT MANAGER
4.2.4 Cleaning the coulometric KF titration cell
4.2.5 Cleaning the measuring electrode
4.3 Volumetric KF Titration: Titrant concentration
4.3.1 How often should the concentration be determined?
4.3.2 Concentration determination with di-sodium tartrate dihydrate
4.3.3 Concentration determination with Water Standard 10.0 mg/g
4.3.4 Concentration determination with pure water
4.3.5 The solvent
4.3.6 Dissolving capacity of the solvent
5 Sampling
5.1 Taking the sample
5.2 Storing the sample
5.3 Amount of sample
6 Sample addition
6.1 Liquid samples
6.2 Solid samples
7 Release of water from the sample
7.1 Internal extraction
7.2 External extraction
7.3 External dissolution
7.4 Lyophilized substance in septum bottles
7.5 Determination of water in gases
7.6 Determination using the drying oven
7.6.1 Principle
7.6.2 Purge gas
7.6.3 Procedure
7.6.4 Manual Karl Fischer drying oven
7.6.5 STROMBOLI automatic oven sample changer
9.4 Example: reevaluation of side reactions
10 Troubleshooting
10.1 Coulometry
10.2 Volumetric Karl Fischer Titration
11 Karl Fischer Titration: The Method at a Glance
11.1 Solid samples
11.1.1 Organic Chemicals
11.1.2 Inorganic chemicals
11.1.3 Technical products – organic
11.1.4 Technical products - inorganic
11.1.5 Technical natural products
11.1.6 Food
11.2 Liquid samples
11.2.1 Organic and inorganic chemicals
11.2.2 Foods and technical products
12.6.3 For samples insoluble in methanol or ethanol
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Huong Dan Su Dung May Karl Fischer

Huong Dan Su Dung May Karl Fischer

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Published by planet1902

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Published by: planet1902 on Nov 02, 2010
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07/05/2013

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