Elementary Mathematics Benchmarks, Grades K–63(organized by grade)May 2008Achieve, Inc.
Example:13 can be called "one ten and three ones," with "thirteen" being a kind of nickname.
N.K.3 Compare numbers up to 10
a.Compare sets of 10 or fewer objects and identify which are equal to, more than,or less than others.
Compare by matching and by counting.
Use picture graphs (pictographs) to illustrate quantities being compared.
b.Recognize zero (0) as the count of "no objects."Note:
Zero is the answer to "how many are left?" when all of a collection of objectshas been taken away.
Example:Zero is the number of buttons left after 7 buttons are removed from a boxthat contains7 buttons.
N.K.4 Understand addition as putting together and subtraction as breakingapart.
a.Add and subtract single-digit numbers whose total or difference is between 0and 10.
Write expressions such as 5 + 2 or 7 –3 to represent situations involving sums ordifferences of numbers less than 10.
b.Understand “add” as "put together" or "add onto" and solve addition problemswith numbers less than 10 whose totals are less than 20.
Understand the meaning of addition problems phrased in different ways to reflecthow people actually speak.
Use fingers and objects to add.
Attach correct names to objects being added.
This is especially important when the objects are dissimilar. For example, thesum of 3 apples and 4 oranges is 7 fruits.
c.Understand “subtract” as "break apart" or "take away" and solve subtractionproblems using numbers between 1 and 10.
Understand the meaning of addition problems phrased in different ways to reflecthow people actually speak.Example:7 –3 equals the number of buttons left after 3 buttons are removed froma box that contains 7 buttons.
Recognize subtraction situations involving missing addends and comparison.
Use fingers, objects, and addition factsto solve subtraction problems.