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Chemistry Class XII Experiment - Evaporation

Chemistry Class XII Experiment - Evaporation

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Published by Kamaljoshi4

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Published by: Kamaljoshi4 on Nov 02, 2010
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05/25/2014

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Acknowledgment
I am are greatly thankful for the cooperation and help of the Chemistry lab staff for the successfulcompletion of this investigatory. Without their help and proper guidance myproject might not havecompleted.
 
I
ndex
1
. Introduction2. Theory3. Objectives of project4. Experiment No.
1
 5. Experiment No.2
 
Th
eory
Evaporation is the process whereby atoms or molecules in a liquid state (or solid state if thesubstancesublimes) gain sufficient energy to enter the gaseous state. The thermal motion of amoleculemust be sufficient to overcome the surface tension of the liquid in order for it to evaporate,that is, its kinetic energy must exceed the work function of cohesion at the surface.Evaporation therefore proceeds morequickly at higher temperature and in liquids with lowersurface tension. Since only a small proportion of the molecules are located near the surface and aremoving in the proper direction to escape at any given instant, the rate of evaporation is limited.Also, as the faster-moving molecules escape, the remaining molecules have lower average kineticenergy, and the temperature of the liquid thus decreases. If the evaporation takes place in a closedvessel, the escaping molecules accumulate as a vapour above the liquid. Many of the moleculesreturn to the liquid, with returning molecules becoming more frequent as the density and pressureof the vapour increases. When the process of escape and return reaches equilibrium, the vapour issaid to be "saturated," and no further change in either vapour pressure and density or liquidtemperature will occur. Gas has less order than liquid or solid matter, and thus the entropy of thesystem is increased, which always requires energy input. This means that the entropy change forevaporation (H) is always positive.Forced evaporation is a process usedin the separation of mixtures, in which a mixture isheated to drive off the more volatile component (e.g. water), leaving behind the dry, less volatile,component. It is a misconception that at
1
ATM, water vapour only exists at
100°
C.Water molecules are in a constant state of evaporation and condensation flux near the surface of liquid water. If a surface molecule receives enough energy, it will leave the liquid and turn into vaporpending an allowable vapour pressure. Under a pressure of 
1
ATM, water will boil at
100°
C.
Factors influencing rate of evaporation:-
1
.
Concentration of t
h
e substance evaporating in t
h
e air
. If the air already has a high concentrationof the substance evaporating, then the given substance will evaporate more slowly.2.
Concentration of ot
h
er substances in t
h
e air
. If the air is already saturated with other substances,it can have a lower capacity for the substance evaporating.3.
T
emperature of t
h
e substance
. If the substance is hotter, then evaporation will be faster.4.
Flow rate of air
. This is in part related to the concentration points above. If fresh air is movingover the substance all the time, then the concentration of the substance in the air is less likely to goup with time, thus encouraging faster evaporation. In addition, molecules in motion have moreenergy than those atrest, and so the stronger the flowof air, the greater the evaporatingpower of the air molecules.

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