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Development of Cinema Ontology: A Conceptual and Context Approach

Development of Cinema Ontology: A Conceptual and Context Approach

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Published by ijcsis
Stored multimedia data poses a number of challenges in the management of multimedia information, includes knowledge representation, indexing and retrieval, intelligent searching techniques, information browsing and query processing. Among the multimedia entertainment, cinema stands in the first position. Ontology is a kind of concept model that could describe system at the level of semantic knowledge as agreed by a community of people. Ontology is hierarchical and thus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for the semantic indexing and retrieval of information. Ontology together with a set of individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base. In an abstract sense, we view cinema ontology as a collection of sub ontologies. Most of the queries are based on two different aspects of the multimedia objects pertaining to cinema domain viz context information and concept based scenes. There is a need for two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain. Cinema Context Ontology and Cinema Scene Ontology. The former deals with the external information and while the later focus on the semantic concepts of the cinema scene and their hierarchy and the relationship among the concepts. Further practical implementation of Cinema ontology is illustrated using the protégé tool. Finally, designing and construction of context information extraction system and cinema scene search engine are proposed as future work. The proposed structure is flexible and can be easily enhance.
Stored multimedia data poses a number of challenges in the management of multimedia information, includes knowledge representation, indexing and retrieval, intelligent searching techniques, information browsing and query processing. Among the multimedia entertainment, cinema stands in the first position. Ontology is a kind of concept model that could describe system at the level of semantic knowledge as agreed by a community of people. Ontology is hierarchical and thus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for the semantic indexing and retrieval of information. Ontology together with a set of individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base. In an abstract sense, we view cinema ontology as a collection of sub ontologies. Most of the queries are based on two different aspects of the multimedia objects pertaining to cinema domain viz context information and concept based scenes. There is a need for two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain. Cinema Context Ontology and Cinema Scene Ontology. The former deals with the external information and while the later focus on the semantic concepts of the cinema scene and their hierarchy and the relationship among the concepts. Further practical implementation of Cinema ontology is illustrated using the protégé tool. Finally, designing and construction of context information extraction system and cinema scene search engine are proposed as future work. The proposed structure is flexible and can be easily enhance.

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Development of Cinema Ontology: A Conceptual andContext Approach
Dr. Sunitha Abburu
Professor & DirectorDepartment of Computer ApplicationsAdhiyamaan College of EngineeringHosur, India.918050594248ausunithaa@yahoo.co.in
Jinesh V N
Lecturer, Department of Computer ScienceThe Oxford College of ScienceBangalore, India.919739072949 jineshvn@yahoo.co.in
 Abstract 
 — 
S
tored multimedia data poses a number of challengesin the management of multimedia information, includesknowledge representation, indexing and retrieval, intelligentsearching techniques, information browsing and queryprocessing. Among the multimedia entertainment, cinema standsin the first position. Ontology is a kind of concept model thatcould describe system at the level of semantic knowledge asagreed by a community of people. Ontology is hierarchical andthus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for the semanticindexing and retrieval of information. Ontology together with aset of individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base.In an abstract sense, we view cinema ontology as a collection of sub ontologies. Most of the queries are based on two differentaspects of the multimedia objects pertaining to cinema domainviz context information and concept based scenes. There is a needfor two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain.Cinema Context Ontology and Cinema Scene Ontology. Theformer deals with the external information and while the laterfocus on the semantic concepts of the cinema scene and theirhierarchy and the relationship among the concepts. Furtherpractical implementation of Cinema ontology is illustrated usingthe protégé tool. Finally, designing and construction of contextinformation extraction system and cinema scene search engineare proposed as future work. The proposed structure is flexibleand can be easily enhance.
Keywords-
Domain ontology; Concept; Context; Cinema; Multimedia
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
In this busy and competitive world entertainment mediaplays a vital role. All need some kind of entertainment to comeout of the daily life pressure. The volume of digital video hasgrown tremendously in recent years, due to low cost digitalcameras, scanners, and storage and transmission devices.Multimedia objects are now employed in different areas suchas entertainment, advertising, distance learning, tourism,distributed CAD/CAM, GIS, sports etc. This trend has resultedin the emergence of numerous multimedia repositories thatrequire efficient storage. The stored multimedia data poses anumber of challenges in the management of multimediainformation, including data and knowledge representation,indexing and retrieval, intelligent searching techniques,information browsing and query processing. Among themultimedia entertainment cinema stands in the first position.Large numbers of groups are involved in the cinema domain.Nowadays multimedia entertainment became more and morepopular and vast numbers of groups are working on thisdomain. Most of entertainment media is introducing cinemarelat
ed programs. Today‘s busy world most of us p
refer towatch favorite scenes. Our studies on user requirementspertaining to the entertaining of cinema lovers would like towatch information about cinema celebrities like date of birth,hobbies, list of fl
opped cinemas, ranking…etc,. And would
also like to view scenes pertaining to specific theme, actor
…etc, they may be looking for their favorite actor, director,musician…etc
,. At the same time directors, cameramen, stunt
masters…etc, would like to view sc
enes pertaining to aspecific theme or different theme to improve or enhance theircapabilities, skills or knowledge. Cinema, clipping and relatedinformation is/are available in the internet. To improve theeffectiveness and efficiency of system, one must concentrateon user community and their requirements in different aspects.Multimedia objects are required for variety of reasons indifferent contexts. Video data is rapidly growing and playing avital role in our life. Despite the vast growth of multimediaobjects and information, the effectiveness of its usage is verylimited due to the lack of complete organized knowledgerepresentation. The Domain Knowledge should be extractedand stored in an organized manner which will supporteffective retrieval system. An ontology defines a commonvocabulary, common understanding of the structure of domainknowledge among the people who needs to share information.The use of ontology in information systems provides severalbenefits like knowledge needed and acquired can be stored ina standardized format that unambiguously describes theknowledge in a formal model. Ontology is hierarchical andthus provides a taxonomy of concepts that allows for thesemantic indexing and retrieval of information. Ontology
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 201026http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
provides a means of data fusion by supplying synonyms orconcepts defined using various descriptions. Above pointsshows the need of cinema ontology.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The literaturesurvey report is in section 2. Section 3 discusses the proposedmethod for cinema domain ontology construction. In section 4,we present a practical implementation and experimentalresults. Finally, we conclude with a summary and somedirections of future research in section 5.II.
 
LITERATURE
 
ON
 
ONTOLOGYOntology has been developed in the artificial intelligencecommunity to describe a variety of domains, and has beensuggested as a mechanism to provide applications with domainknowledge and to facilitate the sharing of information [1] [2][3] [4]. Ontology is a formal, explicit specification of a sharedconceptualization [5]. A conceptualization of somephenomenon in the world identifies and determines therelevant concepts and the relations of that phenomenon.Ontology is typically defined as an abstract model of a domainof interest with a formal semantics in the sense that theyconstitute a logical theory. These models are supposed torepresent a shared conceptualization of a domain as they areassumed to reflect the agreement of a certain community orgroup of people. In the simplest case, ontology consist of a setof concepts or classes which are relevant for the domain of interest as well as a set of relations defined on these concepts.Ontology is a kind of concept model that could describesystem at the level of semantic knowledge as agreed by acommunity of people. It serves as semantic reference for usersor applications that accept to align their interpretation of thesemantics of their data to the interpretation stored in theontology [6]. As a new kind of knowledge organization tool,ontology has attracted more and more attention.Ontology has been widely used in many fields, such asknowledge representation, knowledge sharing, knowledgeintegration, knowledge reuse, information retrieval, and so on.Hence the development of ontology is seriously impeded [5].In the field of knowledge engineering, different scholars givedifferent definitions of ontology according to the content of ontology, the form of ontology or the purpose of ontology [7].Different types of ontology may exist, ranging fromsophisticated dictionaries to rich conceptual and formaldescriptions of concepts with their relationships andconstraints. N. F. Noy, and D. L. McGuiness in [8] describethe need for ontology as:
 
To share common understanding of the structure of information among people or software agents.
 
To enable reuse of domain knowledge.
 
To make domain assumptions explicit.
 
To separate domain knowledge from the operationalknowledge.
 
To analyze domain knowledge.Ontology development process is an iterative process that willcontinue in the entire life cycle of the Ontology. The basicsteps for building Ontology are:
 
Determine the domain and scope of the ontology.
 
Consider reusing existing ontology.
 
Enumerate important terms in the ontology.
 
Define the classes and the class hierarchy.
 
Define the properties of classes
 — 
slots.
 
Define the facets of the slots.
 
Create instances.When ontology is applied to specific field, it refers asdomain ontology and is the specification of a particulardomain conceptualization. Ontology together with a set of individual instances of classes constitutes a knowledge base.In reality, there is a fine line where the ontology ends and theknowledge base begins. Lili Zhao and Chunping Li [9]proposed ontology based mining for movie reviews whichuses the ontology structure as an essential part of the featureextraction process by taking relationship between concepts.The author is using two models movie model and featuremodel. Amancio Bouza [10] initiated a project on movieontology with the aim to standardize the representation of movies and movie attributes across data bases. This projectprovides a controlled vocabulary of semantic concepts and thesemantic relations among those concepts. But still, thisontology needs further investigation in collecting, filtering and normalizing concepts, properties, and instances. Shiyan Ou, etal [11] presents an automatic question pattern generation forontology-based question answering for cinema domain. Wehave chosen movie domain for the same reasons given by GijsGeleijnse[12].Gijs have chosen to study the movie domain fortwo reasons, firstly, numerous web pages handle this topic, the
query ‗movie‘ in Google results in 180,000,000 hits. The
performance of the algorithm will thus not or barely beinfluenced by the lack of data available. Secondly, we caneasily verify the results and formulate benchmarks forevaluation purposes. To the best of our knowledge, the needand construction of cinema domain ontology has almost notbeen dealt with. In this paper we present a novel solution toconstruct cinema domain ontology.III.
 
CINEMA
 
DOMAIN
 
ONTOLOGYCinema domain ontology contains concepts, relationsbetween concepts, concepts attributes. The concept attributesshare object oriented structure. Cinema industry involvesheterogeneous systems and people .This is the biggest industryin the entertainment world and more complex. As morenumber of people with different technical, skills andbackground are trying to show their skills in to the cinemaindustry. People from vast and various fields are competing toshow case their talents, knowledge and the skill sets. All thecommunities would be interested to know, acquire theknowledge of the latest and best techniques, styles in their
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 201027http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
own fields. So our proposed Cinema Ontology model supportssuch kind of requirement.In an abstract view, we view cinema ontology as acollection of sub ontologies. The proposed structure is flexibleand can be easily enhanced. We represent the cinema ontology(CO) as a collection of sub ontology. CO = {CCo, CSo, CMo
} Domain Knowledge is required to capture the metadataand annotation in different aspects, as well as to interpret thequery. Multimedia objects are required for variety of reasonsin different contexts by different communities. We derive theword stakeholder from software engineering aspect for cinemadomain as anyone or groups, who are involved, associated orinterested in the cinema industry. It is sensible to look fornatural subgroups that will be more homogeneous than thetotal population. Hence in our case we classified thestakeholder community into two classes based on their rolesthey perform with respect to the cinema domain. Stakeholderswho are involved and associated are fall in one class and theinterested will fall in other class. The advantage of suchclassification is that we can easily sum up the retrievalbehavior which directly conveys the information requirement.
End user‘s information requirement is a ve
ry significant andsubstantial input during database design. Unfortunately thisinput will not be readily available and has to be manuallycollected and accumulated from the real world. Thus itinvolves extensive human expertise and experience. Even afteraccumulation there is no guaranty that the information iscomplete and correct. This has motivated us to design acinema domain ontology which is flexible and easy to enhanceas and when the requirements changes.As per our literature survey not much work has been donein cinema domain. Survey on stake holders informationrequirements pertaining to the cinema lovers reflects that theywould like to watch information about cinema celebrities like
date of birth, hobbies, list of flopped cinemas, ranking…e
tc,and also would like to view scenes related to specific theme,actor,
director, musician…etc,. Where as directors,
cameraman, stunt masters, and technical
groups…etc, would
like to view scenes pertaining to a specific theme or differenttheme to improve or enhance their capabilities, skills orknowledge. Themes may based on the interest of the viewerpertaining to
 
Actor, comedian...
 
Actions. (Happy
, angry…etc
,.)
 
Events (celebrations-birthday, wedding, inauguration)
 
Location (hill stations, 7 wonders of the world, etc.)
 
Settings used.
 
Subjective emotions (happiness, violence)
 
Costumes used…etc
, (dragon, devil, god, specialcharacters...)
 
Including the presence of a specific type of object(trains, cars,etc,. )Metadata such as who captured the video, wher
e, when…etc,
motivated by these demands efforts have been made to build asemantic cinema ontology , exploring more efficient contextmanagement and information retrieval system.Our studies onuser requirements concluded that most of the queries are basedon the two different aspects of the multimedia objects vizcontext, concept based scenes. As the requirements may berelated to the cinema scene or the information about thecinema. Cinema domain ontology is a hierarchical structuredset of concepts describing cinema context, cinema scenesdomain knowledge, which can support cinema informationextraction, storage and retrieval system. This gives the need of two kinds of sub ontology pertaining to the cinema domain.
 
Cinema context ontology(CCo)
 
Cinema Scene ontology (CSo).In this scenario, the formalism of knowledge must beconvenient for structuring the movie descriptions based onavailable resource.
 A.
 
Cinema Context Ontology
The cinema is closely associates with different kinds of information like cinema, cinema celebrities, banner, cinemaranking, etc. This kind of information or data is not related tothe content or semantics of the cinema. To represent thecomplete cinema domain knowledge semantic informationmust be associated with context information along with thecinema scenes. Moreover the index considering onlysemantics ignores the context information regarding the video.Unfortunately cinema scenes or multimedia object which isseparated from its context has less capability of conveyingsemantics. For example, diagnostic medical videos areretrieved not only in terms of video content but also in termsof other information associated with the video (like
 physician‘s diagnosis, physician details, treatment plan, photograph taken on. …etc., ). Con
text information includesinformation regarding the cinema, such as date of release,place of release, director, producer, actors and so on. In thecinema domain context information abstracts completeinformation of that context i.e., actors, producers, technical
community personal details …etc
,. The context informationassociated to the cinema domain can be classified in to contextindependent information and context dependent information asshown in Fig. 1
Figure.1 Context Information Classification
ContextOntology
Context independentContext Dependent
HumanObserverInternet
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 201028http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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