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Machine Learning Approach for Object Detection - A Survey Approach

Machine Learning Approach for Object Detection - A Survey Approach

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Published by ijcsis
Object detection is a computer technology related to computer vision and image processing to determine whether or not the specified object is present, and, if present, determine the locations and sizes of each object. Depending on the machine learning algorithms, we can divide all object detection methods as
Generative Methods and Discriminative Methods. The concept of object detection is being an active area of research and it is rapidly emerging since it is used in many areas of computer vision, including image retrieval and video surveillance. This paper presents a general survey which reviews the various techniques for object detection and brings out the main outline of object detection. The concepts of image detection are discussed in detail along with examples and description. The most common & significant algorithms for object detection are further discussed. In this work an overview of the existing methodologies and proposed techniques for object detection with future ideas for the enhancement are discussed.
Object detection is a computer technology related to computer vision and image processing to determine whether or not the specified object is present, and, if present, determine the locations and sizes of each object. Depending on the machine learning algorithms, we can divide all object detection methods as
Generative Methods and Discriminative Methods. The concept of object detection is being an active area of research and it is rapidly emerging since it is used in many areas of computer vision, including image retrieval and video surveillance. This paper presents a general survey which reviews the various techniques for object detection and brings out the main outline of object detection. The concepts of image detection are discussed in detail along with examples and description. The most common & significant algorithms for object detection are further discussed. In this work an overview of the existing methodologies and proposed techniques for object detection with future ideas for the enhancement are discussed.

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 N.V. BalajiDepartment of Computer Science, KarpagamUniversity,Coimbatore, India.Dr. M. PunithavalliDepartment of Computer Science, Sri RamakrishnaArts College for Women,Coimbatore, India.
 Abstract---
Object detection is a computer technology related tocomputer vision and image processing to determine whether ornot the specified object is present, and, if present, determine thelocations and sizes of each object. Depending on the machinelearning algorithms, we can divide all object detection methods asGenerative Methods and Discriminative Methods. The concept of object detection is being an active area of research and it israpidly emerging since it is used in many areas of computervision, including image retrieval and video surveillance. Thispaper presents a general survey which reviews the varioustechniques for object detection and brings out the main outline of object detection. The concepts of image detection are discussed indetail along with examples and description. The most common &significant algorithms for object detection are further discussed.In this work an overview of the existing methodologies andproposed techniques for object detection with future ideas for theenhancement are discussed.
 Keywords---Object Detection, Support Vector Machine, Neural  Networks, Machine Learning.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Extracting a feature vector of a given object and objectdetection using the feature vector using pattern matchingtechnique is the main goal for object detection [2]. Objectdetection is to determine whether or not the object is present,and, if present, determine the locations and sizes of eachobject.The most common approaches are image featureextraction, feature transformation and machine learning whereimage feature extraction is to extract information about objectsfrom raw images.Classification of patterns, object identification and itsdescription, are important tribulations to be concentrated uponin a variety of engineering and scientific disciplines such asbiology, psychology, medicine, marketing, computer vision,artificial intelligence, and other remote sensing. Watanabe [1]defines a pattern as opposite of a chaos, that is, it is an entity,vaguely defined and that could be given a name. For instance,a pattern could be a fingerprint image, a handwritten cursiveword, a human face, or a speech signal. Given a pattern, theobject detection may consist of one of the following two tasks[2] either the supervised classification in which the inputpattern is identified as a member of a predefined class or theunsupervised classification, which the pattern is assigned to apreviously unknown class.The recognition problem is being posed as a classificationtask, where the classes are either defined by the systemdesigner or are learned based on the similarity of patterns.Interest in the area of object detection has been renewedrecently due to emerging applications which are not onlychallenging but also computationally more demanding. Theseapplications include data mining, document classification,financial forecasting, organizing and retrieval of multimediadatabases, and biometrics and also the other fields where theneed of the image detection is high.Figure 1. Description for the Image DetectionThe recognition problem is being posed as a classificationtask, where the classes are either defined by the systemdesigner or are learned based on the similarity of patterns.Interest in the area of object detection has been renewedrecently due to emerging applications which are not onlychallenging but also computationally more demanding. Theseapplications include data mining, document classification,financial forecasting, organizing and retrieval of multimediadatabases, and biometrics and also the other fields where theneed of the image detection is high.II.
 
L
ITERATURE
S
URVEY
 Extraction of a reliable feature and improvement of theclassification accuracy have been among the main tasks indigital image processing. Finding the minimum number of feature vectors, which represent observations with reduceddimensionality without sacrificing the discriminating power of pattern classes, along with finding specific feature vectors, hasbeen one of the most important problems in the field of patternanalysis.In the last few years, the problem of recognizing objectclasses received growing attention in both variants of wholeimage classification and object localization. The majority of existing methods use local image patches as basic features [3].Although these work well for some object classes such asmotor-bikes and cars, other classes are defined by their shapeand therefore better represented by contour features.
Machine Learning Approach for ObjectDetection - A Survey Approach
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 201067http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
In many real world applications such as patternrecognition, data mining, and time-series prediction, we oftenconfront difficult situations where a complete set of trainingsample is not given when constructing a system. In facerecognition, for example, since human faces have largevariations due to expressions, lighting conditions, makeup,hairstyles, and so forth, it is hard to consider all variations of face in advance.In many cases, training samples are provided only when asystem misclassifies objects; hence the system is learnedonline to improve the classification performance. This type of learning is called incremental learning or continuous learning,and it has recently received a great attention in many practicalapplications.In pattern recognition and data mining, input data oftenhave a large set of attribute. Hence, the informative inputvariables (features) are first extracted before the classificationis carried out. This means that when constructing an adaptiveclassification system, we should consider two types of incremental learning: one is the incremental feature extraction,and the other is incremental learning classifiers.
 A.
 
 A hybrid object detection technique
As discussed by M. Paul et. al., in [9] the adaptivebackground modeling based object detection techniques arewidely used in machine vision applications for handling thechallenges of real-world multimodal background. But they areforced to detailed environment due to relying on environmentprecise parameters, and their performances also alter acrossdissimilar operating speeds. The basic background calculationis not appropriate for real applications due to manualbackground initialization prerequisite and its incapability toswitch cyclical multimodal background. It shows betterfirmness across different operating speeds and can betterabolish noise, shadow, and trailing effect than adaptivetechniques as no model adaptability or environment relatedparameters are involved. The hybrids object detectiontechnique for incorporating the strengths of both approaches.In this technique, Gaussian mixture models is used formaintaining an adaptive background model and bothprobabilistic and basic subtraction decisions are utilized forscheming reasonably priced neighbor hood statistics forguiding the final object detection decision.
 B.
 
 Moving Object Detection Algorithm
Zhan Chaohui et. al., projected in [10], the first point inmoving object detection algorithm is the block-based motionassessment is used to attain the common motion vectors, thevectors for every block, where the central pixel of the block isconsidered as the enter crucial point. These motion vectors areused to sense the border line blocks, which contain the borderof the object. Presently on, the linear exclamation is used tomake the coarse motion field an impenetrable motion field, bythis way to eliminate the chunk artifacts. This possession canalso be used to sense whether the motion field is uninterruptedor not. This sophisticated impenetrable motion field is used todefine detail limitations in each boundary block. Thus themoving object is detected and coded.
C.
 
 Restricted Bayesian networks
 
This approach presented by Schneiderman et. al., in [4, 5,6 and 7] attempts to study the structure of a Bayesian network to carry out the generative task The problem of sophisticationthe construction of a Bayesian network is known to be NP-Hard, and therefore it is restricted to the structure of theconcluding network to a known form of arrangement to gaintractability.The initial phase is to mine feature information from theobject. Schneider man has discussed by using three levelwavelet transform to convert the contribution image to spatialoccurrence in sequence. One then constructs a set of histograms in both position and intensity. The concentrationvalues of each wavelet layer need be quantized to fit into aninadequate number of bins. One difficulty encountered in thepremature execution of this method was the lacking of highpower regularity information in the objects. With a linearquantization scheme the higher energy bins had primarilysingleton values, this leads to a problem when a prior isintroduced to the bin, as the actual count values are lost in theintroduced prior. To extract this exponential quantizationtechnique was employed to spread the power evenly betweenall the bin levels.
 D.
 
Cluster-Based Object Detection
The cluster based object detection was proposed by Rikert,Jones, and Viola [8]. In this methodology, the informationabout the object is learned and used for classification. Theobjects are transformed and then build a mixture of Gaussianmodel. The transformation is done based on the result of k-means clustering applied to the transformed object. In theinitial pace the object is distorted using a multi-directionalsteer able pyramid. The result of the pyramid is then compiledinto a succession of quality vectors self-possessed of theforemost coat deposit pixel, and the pixels from higher inpyramid resized without interruption. For reasonably sizedpatches this quickly becomes intractable.
 E.
 
 Rapid Object Detection using a Boosted Cascade of Simple Features
Paul Viola et. al., describe in [11], as a machine learningapproach for object detection which is capable of processingimages tremendously rapid and achieving high detection rates.This work is illustrious by three key contributions. The initialis the prologue of an original object representation called theintegral object which allows the features used by the detectorto be computed very quickly. The author developed a learningalgorithm, based on Ada Boost, which selects a small numberof critical visual features from a superior set and yieldsenormously efficient classifiers [12]. The third contribution isa method for combining increasingly more complex classifiersin a “cascade” which allows background regions of the objectto be quickly discarded while spending more calculation onshowing potential object-like regions. The flow can be viewedas an object specific focus of concentration mechanism whichdissimilar to preceding approaches that provides statisticalguarantees that superfluous regions are improbable to containthe object of interest.
F.
 
Template Matching Methods
Huang T.S et. al., described the template matchingmethods that uses standard patterns of objects and the objectparts to portray the object globally or as diverse parts.Correlations get struck between the input image and patternssubsequently computed for detection. Gavrila [16] proposedan object detection scheme that segments forefront regions
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 201068http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
and extracts the boundary. Then the algorithm searches forobjects in the image by matching object features to a databaseof templates. The matching is realized by computing theaverage Chamfer detachment amid the template and the edgemap of the target image area. Wren et al. [18] describeddetailed on a top-down person detector based on template-matching. However, this approach requires field specific sceneanalysis.
G.
 
Object Detection Using Hierarchical MRF and MAP Estimation
Qian R.J et. al., projected this method in [15] whichpresents a new scale, position and direction invariant approachto object detection. The technique initially choosesconcentration on regions in an object based on the regiondetection consequence on the object. Within the attentionregions, the method then detects targets that combine templatematching methods with feature-based methods via hierarchicalMRF and MAP estimation. Hierarchical MRF and MAPinference supply a stretchy framework to integrate variousvisual clues. The amalgamation of template corresponding andfeature detection helps to accomplish robustness againstmultifaceted backgrounds and fractional occlusions in objectdetection.
 H.
 
Object Detection and Localization using Local and Global Features
The work proposed by Kevin Murphy et. al., in [21]describes more advanced method of object detection andlocalization using local and global features of an image.Traditional approaches to object detection only look at thelocal pieces of the image, whether it can be within a slidingwindow or the regions around an interest point detector. Whenthis object of interest is small or the imaging conditions areotherwise unfavorable, such local pieces of the image canbecome indistinct. This ambiguity can be reduced by usingglobal features of the image – which we call as a “gist” of thescene. The object detection rates can be significantly improvedby combining the local and global features of the image. Thismethod also results in large increase of speed as well since thegist is much cheaper to compute than the local detectors.
 I.
 
Object Detection from HS/MS and Multi-Platform RemoteSensing Imagery
Bo Wu et.al, put forth a technique in [22] that integratesbiologically and geometrically inspired approaches to detectobjects from hyperspectral and/or multispectral (HS/MS),multiscale, multiplatform imagery. First, dimensionalityreduction methods are studied and implemented forhyperspectral dimensionality reduction. Then, a biologicallystimulated method S-LEGION (Spatial-Locally ExcitatoryGlobally Inhibitory Oscillator Network) is developed forobject detection on the multispectral and dimension reducedhyperspectral data. This method provides rough object shapes.Geometrically inspired method, GAC (Geometric ActiveContour), is employed for refining object boundary detectionon the high resolution imagery based upon the initial objectshapes provided by S-LEGION.
 J.
 
 Binary Partition Tree for Object Detection
This proposal suggested by V. Vilaplana et. al., in [23],discusses the use of Binary Partition Tree (BPT) for objectdetection. BPTs are hierarchal region based representation of images. They define a reduced set of regions that covers theimage support and that spans various levels of resolution.They are attractive for object detection as they enormouslyreduce the search space. In [23], several issues allied to the useof BPT for object detection are examined. Analysis in thecompromise between computational complexity reduction andaccuracy in accordance with the construction of binary treelead us to define two parts in BPT: one providing the accuracyand the other representing the search space for the task of object detection. In turn, it includes an analysis andobjectively compares various similarity measures for the treeconstruction. This different similarity criterion should be usedfor the part providing accuracy in the BPT and for the partdefining the search space. Binary Partition Tree concentratesin a compact and structured representation of meaningfulregions that can be extracted from an image. They offer amulti-scale representation of the image and define thetranslation invariant 2-connectivity rule among regions.
K.
 
Statistical Object Detection Using Local RegressionKernels
This novel approach was proposed by Hae Jong Seo andPeyman Milanfar in [24] to the problem of detection of visualsimilarity between a template image and patches in the givenimage. The method is based on the computation of the localkernel of the template, which measures the likeness of a pixelto its surroundings. This kernel is then used as a descriptorfrom which features are extracted and compared againstanalogous features from the target image. Comparison of thefeatures extracted is carried out using canonical correlationsanalysis. The overall algorithm yields a scalar resemblancemap (RM). This resemblance map indicates the statisticallikelihood of similarity between a given template and all targetpatches in an image. Similar objects with high accuracy can beobtained by performing statistical analysis on the resultingresemblance map. This proposed method is robust to variouschallenging conditions such as partial occlusions andillumination change.
 L.
 
Spatial Histogram based Object Detection
 
Hongming Zhang et. al., describes in [25], that featureextraction plays a major role for object representation in anAutomatic object detection system. The spatial histogrampreserves the object texture and shape simultaneously as itcontains marginal distribution of image over local patches. In[25], methods of learning informative features for spatialhistogram-based object detection were proposed. Fishercriterion is employed to measure the discriminability of thespatial histogram feature and calculates features correlationsusing mutual information. An informative selection algorithmwas proposed in order to construct compact feature sets forefficient classification. This informative selection algorithmselects the uncorrelated and discriminative spatial histogramfeatures and this proposed method is efficient in objectdetection.
 M.
 
 Recursive Neural Networks for Object Detection
 
M. Bianchini et. al., put forth an algorithm in [26], a newrecursive neural network model for object detection. Thisalgorithm is capable of processing directed acyclic graphswith labeled edges, which address the problem of objectdetection. The preliminary step in an object detection systemis the detection. The proposed method describes a graph-based
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 201069http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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