important and basic issue in resource management. For maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for minimizing the call blocking probability with certain number of wavelengths, the multicast routing and wavelengthassignment (MC-RWA) problem is studied. .The problem of finding a multicast tree and allocatingavailable wavelength for each link of the tree is known as theMulticast Routing and Wavelength Assignment (MC-RWA) problem, which plays a key role in supporting multicastingover WDM networks . The problems involving in therouting and wavelength assignment in WDM are as follows:
Improper wavelength assignment, especially for themulticast connection, will cause wavelength blocking, whereas the network resources may be stillunderutilized.
The wavelength continuity constraint,
, that linksfrom source to destination shall use the samewavelength to convey data in the same lightpath,always makes the wavelength assignment inflexibleand causes wavelength blocking.
The available wavelength can be maximized by thewavelength converter but this type of device is muchintricate and cost is also high when compared withthe type of device which cannot perform theconversion.
The signal may also decay during the conversion.Therefore, it is not possible to have all network nodes be equipped with wavelength conversion capability.
The problem of the node architecture is that theywere designed without having into account power efficiency, neither complexity of fabrication .
The two sub-problems of the routing and wavelengthassignment are the routing problem and thewavelength assignment problem, which can be either coupled or uncoupled. In the case of uncoupledsituation, initially a route or a tree is obtained whichis then followed by the wavelength assignment wherethe trees must be kept unchanged and is called as thestatic RWA. In the coupled case, based on the stateof the wavelength assignment, the routes are decidedwhich is usually called as dynamic or adaptive RWA.In previous paper, a resource efficient multicast routing protocol is developed. In this protocol, the incoming traffic issent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junctionnodes and then, from the junction nodes to the finaldestinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Bandwidth required for these pathsdepends on the ingress–egress capacities, and the traffic splitratios. The traffic split ratio is determined by the arrival rate of ingress traffic and the capacity of intermediate junction nodes.In this paper, a multicast routing and wavelengthassignment technique in wavelength division multiplexingnetworks is designed. In this technique, paths from sourcenode to each of the destination nodes and the potential pathsare divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. Byusing the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposedscheme can be generally applied for the wavelengthassignment of multicast in WDM network. The LeastInfluence Group (LIG) approach is used to provide thewavelength selection.II.
Jingyi He et al  have proposed for the first time aformulation of the MC-RWA problem with the objective tomaximize the number of multicast groups admitted, or equivalently, to minimize the call (or session) blocking probability given a certain number of wavelengths
. Theformulation is a nonlinear integer program, which in general iscomplex to solve so a near-optimal solution of the problem is proposed using a two-step approach based on linear programming. The drawback in this work is that the focus ison minimizing the user blocking probability instead of thesession blocking probability for single-source applications.Anping Wang et al  have proposed a new multicastwavelength assignment algorithm called NGWA withcomplexity of
is the number of nodes on amulticast tree. The whole procedure of NGWA algorithm isseparated into two phases: the partial wavelength assignment phase and the complete wavelength assignment phase. Thedrawback of this work is that this method achieves onlysatisfactory performance in terms of the total number of wavelength conversions and the average blocking probability Nina Skorin-Kapov  has addressed the problem of multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC RWA) inwavelength routed WDM optical networks. Multicast requestsare facilitated in WDM networks by setting up so-called light-trees and assigning wavelengths to them. She has proposed aheuristic algorithm based on bin packing methods for thegeneral MC RWA problem, which is NP-complete. Thesealgorithms can consider unicast, multicast and broadcastrequests with or without QoS demands. Computational testsindicate that these algorithms are very efficient, particularlyfor dense networks.Fen Zhou et al  have proposed a routing andwavelength assignment for supporting multicast traffic isinvestigated in WDM mesh networks under sparse splittingconstrain. This problem is generally solved in two phasesrespectively with the purpose of minimizing the number of wavelengths required. Alternative routing is first proposed toroute each session by pre-computing a set of candidate light-forests. Then wavelength assignment is formulated as coloring problems by constructing a conflict graph. Potential heuristicalgorithms are proposed. The drawback of this work is thatsimulation should be done to assess the verification of the proposed methods.Yuan Cao et al  have proposed an efficient QoS-guaranteed Group Multicast RWA solutions, where thetransmission delay from any source to any destination within amulticast group is within a given bound. They have formulatedthe QoS-guaranteed GMC-RWA problem as an in-grouptraffic grooming and multicasting problem, where traffic
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010176http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500