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Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Capacity Improvement in Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks

Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Capacity Improvement in Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks

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Published by ijcsis
In WDM network, the route decision and wavelength assignment of light-path connections are based mainly on the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA). The multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC-RWA) problem is for maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for minimizing the call blocking probability. In this paper, The design of multicast routing and wavelength assignment technique for capacity improvement in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks is proposed. In this technique, the incoming traffic is sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junction nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final destinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Then, paths from source node to each of the destination nodes and the potential paths are divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. By using the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposed scheme can be generally applied for the wavelength assignment of multicast in WDM network. By simulation results, it is proved that the proposed technique achieves higher throughput and bandwidth utilization with reduced delay.
In WDM network, the route decision and wavelength assignment of light-path connections are based mainly on the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA). The multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC-RWA) problem is for maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for minimizing the call blocking probability. In this paper, The design of multicast routing and wavelength assignment technique for capacity improvement in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks is proposed. In this technique, the incoming traffic is sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junction nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the final destinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Then, paths from source node to each of the destination nodes and the potential paths are divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. By using the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposed scheme can be generally applied for the wavelength assignment of multicast in WDM network. By simulation results, it is proved that the proposed technique achieves higher throughput and bandwidth utilization with reduced delay.

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Multicast Routing and Wavelength Assignment for Capacity Improvement in Wavelength DivisionMultiplexing Networks
 N.Kaliammal
Professor, Department of ECE, N.P.R college of Engineering and Technology,Dindugul, Tamil naduEmail: kala_gowri@yahoo.co.inTel: +91 9965557267
G.Gurusamy
Prof/Dean/ EEE, FIEBannari amman Institute of Technology,Sathyamangalam,Tamil nadu.E-mail: hodeee@bitsathy.ac.inTel: +91 9791301662
 Abstract—
In WDM network, the route decision and wavelengthassignment of light-path connections are based mainly on therouting and wavelength assignment (RWA). The multicastrouting and wavelength assignment (MC-RWA) problem is formaximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or forminimizing the call blocking probability. In this paper, Thedesign of multicast routing and wavelength assignment techniquefor capacity improvement in wavelength division multiplexing(WDM) networks is proposed. In this technique, the incomingtraffic is sent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junction nodes and then, from the junction nodes to the finaldestinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes inpredetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Then, paths from source node to each of thedestination nodes and the potential paths are divided intofragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes havethe wavelength conversion capability. By using the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposed scheme can begenerally applied for the wavelength assignment of multicast inWDM network. By simulation results, it is proved that therproposed technique achieves higher throughput and bandwidthutilization with reduced delay.
 
I.
 
I
 NTRODUCTION
 
 A. Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing (WDM) Networks
The need for on-demand provisioning of wavelengthrouted channels with service differentiated offerings within thetransport layer has become more essential due to the recentemergence of high bit rate IP network applications. Diverseoptical transport network architectures have been proposed inorder to achieve the above requirements. This approach isdetermined by the fundamental advances in the wavelengthdivision multiplexing (WDM) technologies. Due to theavailability of ultra long-reach transport and all-opticalswitching, the deployment of all-optical networks has beenmade possible [1].The concurrent transmission of multiple streams of datawith the assistance of special properties of fiber optics iscalled as wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). TheWDM network provides the capability of transferring hugeamount of data at high speeds by the users over large distance[2].For the future generation internet, WDM is considered as a backbone which is the most talented technology. The data isrouted through optical channels called light paths in WDM alloptical networks. The light path establishment requires samewavelength and it should be used along the entire route of thelight path without wavelength conversion. This is commonlyconsidered to the wavelength continuity constraint [3].
 B. Multicasting in WDM Networks
A network technology which is used for the delivery of information to a group of destinations is called as multicastaddressing. This simultaneously uses the most efficientstrategy to deliver the message over each link of the network only once. Moreover, it creates the copies only when the linksto the multiple destinations split [4].In recent years, multicast communication is turning out to be vital due to its efficient resources usage and the increasing popularity of the point-to-multipoint multimedia applications.Usually, a source and a set of destinations are included in amulticast session. In conventional data networks, in order toallow a multicast session, a multicast tree which is rooted atthe source is constructed with branches spanning all thedestinations [5].Recently, multicast routing in optical networks has beenresearched which is related to the design of multicast-capableoptical switches. For multicast in WDM networks, the conceptof light-trees was introduced. Reducing the distance of network-wide hop and the total number of transceivers used inthe network are the objective of setting up the light trees. Nowadays, there are several network applications whichrequire the support of QoS multicast such as multimediaconferencing systems, video on demand systems, real-timecontrol systems, etc. [6].
C. Routing and Wavelength in WDM 
 
In WDM network, the route decision and wavelengthassignment of light-path connections are based mainly on therouting and wavelength assignment (RWA). This is the most
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010175http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
important and basic issue in resource management. For maximizing the number of multicast groups admitted or for minimizing the call blocking probability with certain number of wavelengths, the multicast routing and wavelengthassignment (MC-RWA) problem is studied. [7].The problem of finding a multicast tree and allocatingavailable wavelength for each link of the tree is known as theMulticast Routing and Wavelength Assignment (MC-RWA) problem, which plays a key role in supporting multicastingover WDM networks [8]. The problems involving in therouting and wavelength assignment in WDM are as follows:
 
Improper wavelength assignment, especially for themulticast connection, will cause wavelength blocking, whereas the network resources may be stillunderutilized.
 
The wavelength continuity constraint,
i.e.
, that linksfrom source to destination shall use the samewavelength to convey data in the same lightpath,always makes the wavelength assignment inflexibleand causes wavelength blocking.
 
The available wavelength can be maximized by thewavelength converter but this type of device is muchintricate and cost is also high when compared withthe type of device which cannot perform theconversion.
 
The signal may also decay during the conversion.Therefore, it is not possible to have all network nodes be equipped with wavelength conversion capability.
 
The problem of the node architecture is that theywere designed without having into account power efficiency, neither complexity of fabrication [9].
 
The two sub-problems of the routing and wavelengthassignment are the routing problem and thewavelength assignment problem, which can be either coupled or uncoupled. In the case of uncoupledsituation, initially a route or a tree is obtained whichis then followed by the wavelength assignment wherethe trees must be kept unchanged and is called as thestatic RWA. In the coupled case, based on the stateof the wavelength assignment, the routes are decidedwhich is usually called as dynamic or adaptive RWA[7].In previous paper, a resource efficient multicast routing protocol is developed. In this protocol, the incoming traffic issent from the multicast source to a set of intermediate junctionnodes and then, from the junction nodes to the finaldestinations. The traffic is distributed to the junction nodes in predetermined proportions that depend on the capacities of intermediate nodes. Bandwidth required for these pathsdepends on the ingress–egress capacities, and the traffic splitratios. The traffic split ratio is determined by the arrival rate of ingress traffic and the capacity of intermediate junction nodes[13].In this paper, a multicast routing and wavelengthassignment technique in wavelength division multiplexingnetworks is designed. In this technique, paths from sourcenode to each of the destination nodes and the potential pathsare divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelength conversion capability. Byusing the concept of fragmentation and grouping, the proposedscheme can be generally applied for the wavelengthassignment of multicast in WDM network. The LeastInfluence Group (LIG) approach is used to provide thewavelength selection.II.
 
ELATED
W
ORK 
 Jingyi He et al [7] have proposed for the first time aformulation of the MC-RWA problem with the objective tomaximize the number of multicast groups admitted, or equivalently, to minimize the call (or session) blocking probability given a certain number of wavelengths
.
. Theformulation is a nonlinear integer program, which in general iscomplex to solve so a near-optimal solution of the problem is proposed using a two-step approach based on linear  programming. The drawback in this work is that the focus ison minimizing the user blocking probability instead of thesession blocking probability for single-source applications.Anping Wang et al [8] have proposed a new multicastwavelength assignment algorithm called NGWA withcomplexity of 
O
(
 N 
), where
 N 
is the number of nodes on amulticast tree. The whole procedure of NGWA algorithm isseparated into two phases: the partial wavelength assignment phase and the complete wavelength assignment phase. Thedrawback of this work is that this method achieves onlysatisfactory performance in terms of the total number of wavelength conversions and the average blocking probability Nina Skorin-Kapov [10] has addressed the problem of multicast routing and wavelength assignment (MC RWA) inwavelength routed WDM optical networks. Multicast requestsare facilitated in WDM networks by setting up so-called light-trees and assigning wavelengths to them. She has proposed aheuristic algorithm based on bin packing methods for thegeneral MC RWA problem, which is NP-complete. Thesealgorithms can consider unicast, multicast and broadcastrequests with or without QoS demands. Computational testsindicate that these algorithms are very efficient, particularlyfor dense networks.Fen Zhou et al [11] have proposed a routing andwavelength assignment for supporting multicast traffic isinvestigated in WDM mesh networks under sparse splittingconstrain. This problem is generally solved in two phasesrespectively with the purpose of minimizing the number of wavelengths required. Alternative routing is first proposed toroute each session by pre-computing a set of candidate light-forests. Then wavelength assignment is formulated as coloring problems by constructing a conflict graph. Potential heuristicalgorithms are proposed. The drawback of this work is thatsimulation should be done to assess the verification of the proposed methods.Yuan Cao et al [12] have proposed an efficient QoS-guaranteed Group Multicast RWA solutions, where thetransmission delay from any source to any destination within amulticast group is within a given bound. They have formulatedthe QoS-guaranteed GMC-RWA problem as an in-grouptraffic grooming and multicasting problem, where traffic
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010176http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
streams from members of the same group are groomed in aneffective way before being delivered to their commondestinations, subject to the following optical layer constraints.III.
 
M
ULTICAST
T
REE
F
ORMATION
 
 A. Basic Definitions
The node which cannot split the incoming message to theoutgoing ports is called as Multicast Incapable (MI) nodes.But it can utilize a small amount of optical power from thewavelength channel while forwarding it to only one outputlink.The nodes which are capable of splitting the incomingmessage to all the outgoing ports are called as MulticastCapable (MC) nodes.The set which includes the multicast capable nodes (MCnode) and the leaf multicast incapable nodes (leaf MI nodes) iscalled as MC_SET.The set which includes only the non-leaf multicastincapable nodes, which are not able to connect a newdestination to the multicast tree, is called as MI_SET.The set D includes the unvisited multicast destinationswhich are not yet joined to the multicast tree.A constraint path between a node u and a tree T is ashortest path from node u to a node v in the MC_SET for T,and this shortest path should not traverse any node in MI_SETfor T. And the constraint path with the minimum length iscalled the Shortest Constraint Path (SCP).For one nearest destination d, MC_SET may have differentSCPs to the sub-tree. Let X and Y are the nodes for the sub-tree in MC_SET. Without involving any node in MI_SET for the sub-tree, both the shortest paths from X and Y to thenearest destination d have the shortest length among all thenodes in MC_SET. Here, the nodes like X and Y are named as junction nodes in the sub-tree.
 Member only Algorithm
T = {s}MI_SET = NullMC_SET = {s}D = {D1, D2….Dn}1. For each Di, where i = 1, 2….n1.1 If dist (Di, N) = min, where N
 MC_SET, then1.1.1 Add Di to T1.1.2 Find SCP (D
i
, T)
M, whereM
MI_SET1.1.3 Add SCP (D
i
, T) to T1.1.4 Add all the MC nodes toMC_SET1.1.5 Add all the leaf MI nodes toMC_SET1.1.6 Add all the non-leaf MI nodesto MI_SET1.1.7 Delete the non - leaf MI nodefrom MC_SET1.1.8 Delete the destination d
i
fromD.1.2 End if 2. End for 3. If {D}
Null, Then3.1 Repeat from1.4. End if 
 B. Multicast Routing
A collection of point to multiple point paths from thesource node to each destination is considered as a multicasttree. Choosing a suitable wavelength for its downlink isflexible for a path in the WDM network which has sparse junction nodes. The main objective is to reduce the affectedcapacity. This can be done by selecting a suitable wavelengthfor the downlink of the junction nodes which reduces theinfluence on the potential request paths across it. The junctionnode is considered as an end point of a wavelength within afragment. According to the position of converters within the path, the path can be divided into uni-wavelength fragments.As a result, paths from source node to each of the destinationnodes and the potential paths are divided into fragments by the junction nodes and these junction nodes have the wavelengthconversion capability.A network G= (N, E) with node set N and (directed) edgeE set is taken,where each node in the network can be a sourceor destination of traffic. The nodes in N are {N1, N2…Nn}.
Figure 1. Multicast Routing Process
The above diagram (Fig. 1) shows the routing process. A predetermined fraction of the traffic entering the network atany node is distributed to every junction node. Thecorresponding route from the source to the junction node can be denoted as R1. Then each junction node receives the trafficto be transmitted for different destinations and it routes to their respective destinations. The corresponding route from the junction node to the destination can be denoted as R2.Let I
i
and E
i
, be the constraints on the total amount of traffic at ingress and egress nodes of the network, respectively.The traffic along R1 and R2 must be routed along bandwidth-guaranteed paths. Bandwidth required for these paths depends on the ingress–egress capacities, and the trafficsplit ratios. The traffic split ratio (
δ
) is determined by thearrival rate of ingress traffic and the capacity of intermediate junction nodes.
01243
S
 
R1
 
R2
 
JunctionNode
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010177http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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