Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
15Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
A Novel Approach for Hiding Text Using Image Steganography

A Novel Approach for Hiding Text Using Image Steganography

Ratings: (0)|Views: 721 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
With the increasing use of internet for communication, the major concern of these days is, the security of data being communicated over it. Steganography is the art and science of invisible communication. It hides secret information in other information, thus hiding the existence of the communicated information. In this paper we have discussed a technique of hiding text messages in the images using image steganography. The technique uses matching of secret data with pixel values of cover image as base concept. The LSBs of matched pixels are changed to mark presence of data inside that pixel. For making selection of channels for marking presence of data, a pseudo random number generator is used, which adds another layer of security to the technique and makes the extraction of secret data very difficult for the intruders. The results show that technique provides more security against visual and statistical attacks and attempts to provide more data hiding capacity by using more bits per pixel.
With the increasing use of internet for communication, the major concern of these days is, the security of data being communicated over it. Steganography is the art and science of invisible communication. It hides secret information in other information, thus hiding the existence of the communicated information. In this paper we have discussed a technique of hiding text messages in the images using image steganography. The technique uses matching of secret data with pixel values of cover image as base concept. The LSBs of matched pixels are changed to mark presence of data inside that pixel. For making selection of channels for marking presence of data, a pseudo random number generator is used, which adds another layer of security to the technique and makes the extraction of secret data very difficult for the intruders. The results show that technique provides more security against visual and statistical attacks and attempts to provide more data hiding capacity by using more bits per pixel.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Nov 02, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/09/2012

pdf

text

original

 
 
A Novel Approach for Hiding Text Using ImageSteganography
Sukhpreet Kaur
*
 
Department of Computer Science and EngineeringBaba Farid College of Engineering and TechnologyBathinda-151001, Punjab, India
*
Corresponding Author’s Email:preetsukhpreet@gmail.com
Sumeet Kaur
Department of Computer EngineeringYadavindra College of Engineering Punjabi UniversityGuru Kashi CampusTalwandi Sabo, Punjab, India
 Abstract
— With the increasing use of internet forcommunication, the major concern of these days is, the securityof data being communicated over it. Steganography is the art andscience of invisible communication. It hides secret information inother information, thus hiding the existence of the communicatedinformation. In this paper we have discussed a technique of hiding text messages in the images using image steganography.The technique uses matching of secret data with pixel values of cover image as base concept. The LSBs of matched pixels arechanged to mark presence of data inside that pixel. For makingselection of channels for marking presence of data, a pseudorandom number generator is used, which adds another layer of security to the technique and makes the extraction of secret datavery difficult for the intruders. The results show that techniqueprovides more security against visual and statistical attacks andattempts to provide more data hiding capacity by using more bitsper pixel.Keywords-
Steganography; image steganography; attacks; PSNR; security
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Steganography can be defined as the technique used toembed data or other secret information inside some otherobject commonly referred to as cover, by changing itsproperties. The purpose of steganography is to set up a secretcommunication path between two parties such that any personin the middle cannot detect its existence; the attacker shouldnot gain any information about the embedded data by simplylooking at cover file or stego file. Steganography is the art of hiding information in ways that prevent the detection of hidden messages. Steganography, derived from Greek,literally means “covered writing.” It includes a vast array of secret communications methods that conceal the message’svery existence. These methods include invisible inks,microdots, character arrangement, digital signatures, covertchannels, and spread spectrum [2].
 
Steganography iscommonly misinterpreted to be cryptography orwatermarking. While they are related in many ways, there is afundamental difference in the way they are defined and theproblems to which they are applied. Cryptography protects thesecret data by making it difficult to understand by the intruderbut still the intruder knows that the secret data exists, so hewill try his best to decode the data. Steganography &encryption are both used to ensure data confidentialityhowever the main difference between them is that withencryption anybody can see that both parties arecommunicating in secret.
 
Steganography hides the existenceof a secret message and in the best case nobody can see thatboth parties are communicating in secret
.
Watermarking isused primarily for identification and entails embedding aunique piece of information within a medium withoutnoticeably altering the medium. Steganography uses a basicmodel to hide data inside the cover objects as shown in Fig. 1.
Figure 1. Basic steganography model
The basic model of steganography uses a cover object i.e.any object that can be used to hold secret information inside,the secret message i.e. the secret information that is to be sentto some remote place secretly, a stego key that is used toencode the secret message to make its detection difficult and a
CoverObjectSteganographyAlgorithm/ TechniqueStegoObjec
t
SecretMessageStego Key
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010195http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
steganography algorithm/technique i.e. the procedure to hidesecret message inside cover object. The outcome of theprocess is the stego object i.e. the object that has the secretmessage hidden inside. This stego object is sent to thereceiver where receiver will get the secret data out from thestego image by applying decoding algorithm/ technique.In modern era, steganography is implemented by usingdigital media. Secret message is embedded inside digital covermedia like text, images, audio, video or protocols dependingupon requirement and choice of the sender. Among other typesof steganography, image steganography is most widely used.The reason behind the popularity of image steganography isthe large amount of redundant information present in theimages that can be easily altered to hide secret messages insidethem.
 A.
 
 Applications of Steganography
Steganography has a wide range of applications. The majorapplication of steganography is for secret data communication.Cryptography is also used for the same purpose butsteganography is more widely used technique as it hides theexistence of secret data. Another application of steganographyis feature tagging. Captions, annotations, time stamps, andother descriptive elements can be embedded inside an image,such as the names of individuals in a photo or locations in amap. A secret copyright notice or watermark can be embeddedinside an image to identify it as intellectual property. This isthe watermarking scenario where the message is thewatermark.Steganography can be also used to combine explanatoryinformation with an image (like doctor's notes accompanyingan X-ray).Steganography is used by some modern printers,includingHPandXeroxbrand color laser printers. Tiny yellow dots are added to each page. The dots are barely visibleand contain encoded printer serial numbers, as well as dateand time stamps. The list of applications of imagesteganography is very long.II.
 
I
MAGE
S
TEGANOGRAPHY
 Image steganography uses images as the cover object tohide the secret data. Images are the most widely used coverobjects as they contain a lot of redundant information.Redundancy can be defined as the bits of an object thatprovide accuracy far greater than necessary for the object’suse and display [3]. The redundant bits of an object are thosebits that can be altered without the alteration being detectedeasily [5]. Image files fulfill this requirement so they are verycommonly used as a medium for steganography. Audio filesalso contain redundant information but not used as widely asimage files. A number of techniques have been proposed touse images as cover files. These techniques can be categorizedin the following two ways:
 
Spatial domain techniques
 
Transform domain techniquesImage – also known as spatial – domain techniques embedmessages in the intensity of the pixels directly, while fortransform – also known as frequency – domain, images are firsttransformed and then the message is embedded in the image[1].In spatial domain methods a steganographer modifies thesecret data and the cover medium in the spatial domain, whichinvolves encoding at the level of the LSBs [6]. The best widelyknown steganography algorithm is based on modifying theleast significant bit layer of images, hence known as the LSBtechnique. Spatial domain algorithms embed data bysubstituting carefully chosen bits from the cover image pixelswith secret message bits. LSB technique is the most widelyused technique of image steganography. In this technique theleast significant bit of all the cover image pixels is replacedwith the message bits. In a 24-bit image each pixel contains 3bytes (one for each Red, Green and Blue component), so wecan store 3 bits in each pixel. Some algorithms use all pixels tohide data bits, while others use only specific areas of image.Our proposed technique is also based on the LSB method toshow existence of data in a particular channel.Transform domain techniques first transform the coverimages and then hide the data inside them. Transform domaintechniques [7] hide data in mathematical functions that are incompression algorithms. Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT)technique is one of the commonly used transform domainalgorithm for expressing a waveform as a weighted sum of cosines. The data is hidden in the image files by altering theDCT coefficient of the image. Specifically, DCT coefficientswhich fall below a specific threshold are replaced with thesecret bits. Taking the inverse transform will provide the stegoimage. The extraction process consists in retrieving thosespecific DCT coefficients. Jpeg Steganography is the mostcommon example of transform domain technique of imagesteganography
.
A good technique of image steganography aims at threeaspects. First one is capacity, i.e. the maximum data that can bestored inside cover image. Second one is the imperceptibility,i.e. the visual quality of stego image after data hiding and thelast is robustness i.e. security against attacks [4].III.
 
P
ROPOSED TECHNIQUE
 LSB encoding is a method that claims to provide goodcapacity and imperceptibility. Still the existing methods do notuse the full capacity of cover image. Many techniques like [8-13] have been developed to use the more and more number of bits per pixel to achieve more data hiding capacity. We havedeveloped a technique for hiding text using imagesteganography that use 7 bits per pixel to hide data and still novisual changes in the stego image. We convert the messagesinto ASCII code and then 7 bit ASCII code of each letter ismatched with pixel values of cover image. To mark thepresence of data in a particular pixel we use LSB method.Which component of the pixel contains data that will beshowed by using different combinations of Least SignificantBits. As we know that each pixel of the BMP image is madeup of three bytes, one for Red, one for Green and one for Bluecomponent of the pixel. Each character of the secret message
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010196http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
is converted into ASCII code, which is 7-bit code. So to map acharacter to a pixel component we need only 7 bits of thepixel. The least significant bit of every channel is free to beused as indicator to show that data is present in this channel.We will use LSB of two channels to mark presence of data inany of the three channels. The basic technique is to convertsecret message into ASCII code. To decide which channelswill act as indicator channels, we will use a pseudo randomnumber. For every character of secret message, we generate apseudo random number, depending upon the value of pseudorandom number we decide that which two channels will act asindicator channels. After generating the number, convert thatinto binary bit sequence. Count number of 1s present in thebit sequence and number of zeros present in the bit sequence.Also calculate the parity of the pseudo random number. Nowdepending upon binary bit sequence of pseudo random numberfollowing three cases will be there and one case will be used toselect set of indicator channels. The selection procedure isshown in table 1.
TABLE I. CRITERIA FOR SELECTION OF INDICATOR CHANNELCaseIndicatorchannelsetOrder1(if parityis even)Order2(if parity is odd)If no. of 1s are morethan number of 0sRG RG GRIf no. of 0s are morethan number of 1sGB GB BGIf no. of 0s areequal to number of 1sRB RB BRTABLE II. CRITERIA TO SET VALUE OF INDICATOR CHANNELSData channel (dependingupon match)LSB of indicator 1 LSB of indicator 2RED Channel 0 0GREEN Channel 0 1BLUE Channel 1 0No match 1 1
After selecting set of indicator channels we start from the firstrow of cover image. We hide length of secret message in firstrow using LSB method. Then start tracing from the secondrow to match first character of secret message with 7 MSBs of all three components of first pixel. If there is a match with anycomponent then value of indicator channels is set according tothe criteria given in Table 2. As clear from the Table 2, we setthe values of indicator channels as 00 if data matches in redchannel, 01 if matches with green and 10 if matches with bluechannel. If there is no match then the value is set as 11. Thenthe same procedure is repeated with the next pixel of the coverimage.
 A.
 
Flow Chart of Encoding Process
Go to next pixelStartRead Cover Image. Read SecretMessage, Convert into ASCIIdExtract Length of Secret Message,Store in L. Hide in first row of cover Image.Start from next row of cover.Take next character of message,put in C. Take next Pixel.Find pair of indicator channels ,based on pseudo random numberIf 7MSBs of redChannel==CSet LSB of bothIndicator Channels equalto Zero, L=L-1.If 7MSBs of GreenChannel==CSet LSB of IndicatorChannel1=0 andindicatorChannel2=1.L=L-1.If 7MSBs of BlueChannel==CSet LSB of IndicatorChannel1=1 andindicatorChannel2=0,L=L-1.Set LSB of indicatorChannels equal to 1If L>0
 
NNYYYYN Stop
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010197http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

Activity (15)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Gunjan Singh liked this
alekya_mithinti added this note
HOW to download this without having IEEE membership.
srawan1 liked this
tejindersidhu liked this
tejindersidhu liked this
tejindersidhu liked this
tejindersidhu liked this
tejindersidhu liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->