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Vectorization Algorithm for Line Drawing and Gap filling of Maps

# Vectorization Algorithm for Line Drawing and Gap filling of Maps

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Vectorization, i.e. raster-to-vector conversion is heart of graphics recognition problems, as it deals with converting the scanned image to a vector form suitable for further analysis. Many vectorization methods have been designed. This paper deals with the method of raster-to-vector conversion which proposed for capturing line drawing images. .In the earliest works on vectorization, only one kind of method was introduced. The proposed algorithm combines the features of thinning method and medial line extraction method so as to produce best line fitting algorithm. There are several steps in this process. The first step is Pre-processing, in which find the line into original raster image. Second is developing an algorithm for gap filling between the adjacent lines to produce vectorization for scanned map. Result and Literature about the above mentioned methods is also included in this paper.
Vectorization, i.e. raster-to-vector conversion is heart of graphics recognition problems, as it deals with converting the scanned image to a vector form suitable for further analysis. Many vectorization methods have been designed. This paper deals with the method of raster-to-vector conversion which proposed for capturing line drawing images. .In the earliest works on vectorization, only one kind of method was introduced. The proposed algorithm combines the features of thinning method and medial line extraction method so as to produce best line fitting algorithm. There are several steps in this process. The first step is Pre-processing, in which find the line into original raster image. Second is developing an algorithm for gap filling between the adjacent lines to produce vectorization for scanned map. Result and Literature about the above mentioned methods is also included in this paper.

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08/04/2011

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Vectorization Algorithm for Line Drawing and Gap filling of Maps
Ms.Neeti Daryal Dr Vinod Kumar

Lecturer,Department of Computer Science, Reader,Department of Mathematics M L N College, Yamuna Nagar J.V.Jain College,Saharanpur
Abstract
Vectorization, i.e. raster-to-vector conversion is heart of graphics recognition problems,as it deals with converting the scanned image to a vector form suitable for further analysis. Many vectorization methods have been designed. This paper deals with themethod of raster-to-vector conversion which proposed for capturing line drawing images..In the earliest works on vectorization, only one kind of method was introduced. The proposed algorithm combines the features of thinning method and medial line extractionmethod so as to produce best line fitting algorithm. There are several steps in this process. The first step is Pre-processing, in which find the line into original raster image.Second is developing an algorithm for gap filling between the adjacent lines to producevectorization for scanned map. Result and Literature about the above mentioned methodsis also included in this paper.
Key Words:
Vectorization
,
Gap filling, Line drawing, Thinning algorithm, Medialalgorithm
1.
INTRODUCTION
Graphics recognition is concerned withthe analysis of graphics-intensivedocuments, such as technical drawings,maps or schemas. Vectorization, i.e.raster-to-vector conversion, is of coursea central part of graphics recognition problems, as it deals with convertingthe scanned map to a vector formsuitable for further analysis. Linedrawing management systems storevisual objects as

graphic entities. Manytechniques have already been proposedfor the extraction and recognition of graphic entities from scanned binarymaps. In particular, various raster-to-vector conversion methods have beendeveloped which convert image linesinto vector lines automatically. In this paper, a new raster-to-vector conversionmethod is proposed for capturing high-quality vectors in a line drawing.
Figure 1[1]: Raster Figure1[2]Vector Graphics Graphics
There are two kinds of computer graphics -

raster (composed of pixels)Bitmap Image: Vector Graphic:
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010253http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

and vector (composed of  paths)[1]. Raster images are morecommonly called bitmap images. Vector graphics are called object-orientedgraphics as shown in Figure 1[2].
2.
NEED OF VECTORIZATION
In general, vector data structure produces smaller file size than raster image because a raster image needsspace for all pixels while only pointcoordinates are stored in vector representation [3]. This is even truer inthe case when the graphics or imageshave large homogenous regions and the boundaries and shapes are the primaryinterest.
3.
RELATED WORK
Vectorization techniques have beendeveloped in various domains and anumber of methods have been proposedand implemented. These methods areroughly divided into two classes:Thinning based methods and Non-thinning based methods [4].Thinning based methods are applied inmost of the earlier vectorization schemes[4]. These methods usually employ aniterative boundary erosion process toremove outer pixels until only one- pixel-wide skeleton remains like“peeling an onion” [5]. A polygonalapproximation procedure is then appliedto convert the skeleton to a vector, whichmay be a line segment or a plotline. Thethinning method tends to create noisy junctions at corners, intersections, and branches as shown in the Figure 2[6].Among the non-thinning based methods.Medial line extraction methods,surveyed in were also popular in theearly days of vectorization [7]. Methodsof this class extract image contours (theedges of the shape) before the medialaxis between the two side edges is
Figure 2: Defects of the thinning method
found. The midpoint of two parallel linesis given by the midpoint of a perpendicular line projected from oneside to the other, and these midpoints arecoordinates which represent vectors[5].The medial line extraction methodoften misses pairs of contour lines at branches as shown in Figure 3[6]consequently it fails to find the midpointof parallel lines [8].
Figure 3
:
Defects of the medial line extractionmethod
Other classes of non-thinning basedmethods that also preserve line widthhave been developed recently [5]. Theseinclude run graph based methods mesh pattern based methods and theOrthogonal Zig-Zag (OZZ) method.These methods are not included in this paper. We are working with above saidtwo methods only.The disadvantages of thinning basedmethods and medial line extraction
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010254http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

methods lead to a failure in fitting a line properly. But the thinning method is ableto maintain connectivity but loses shapeinformation. Interestingly, the medialline extraction method has thecomplementary features; that is, itmaintains shape information but tends tolose line connectivity. In combination,they could be realized; good-qualityextracted lines could be obtained.
4.
PROPOSEDVECTORIZATION PROCESS

The following is an implementation of the line fitting concept. The purpose of the particular method has beencarefully designed to offer practical performance with both acceptable processing speed and good vector quality. Figure 4 shows a flowchart for the whole procedure [5].
Figure 4: Flowchart of line fitting methodbased on contours and skeletons
Basic vectorization requires thefollowing tasks:(1) Linking short line Segments intolonger integrated ones.(2) Correcting the defects at junctions.(3) Modifying vector attributes such asendpoints intermediate points and linewidth.Linking short line segments into longer ones may yield the correct line widthand overcome some junction problems.Other defects at junctions, such ascorners and branches are subject tospecial processing [9]. The preciseintersection points. i.e. the endpoints of the vectors, are calculated.The combination has several steps in this process.The first step is
preprocessing
in whichfind the line into original raster image.Second is Gap filling between theadjacent lines.
4.1 PREPROCESSING

A scanned line drawing isconverted from binary raster image data to run length codedata.

Processed into skeletons andTracked for contours.

Each skeleton fragment is linkedto neighboring contour fragments.

Processed into skeleton andcontour fragment respectively.
4.2
GAP FILLING
In a contour image the contour lines aresplit and the different contour levels arewritten in the gap. This causes problemsin automatic vectorization of images.Since the text are erased and not takeninto account while vectorizing, the final
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010255http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500