Simulation Modeling of Reactive Protocols forAdhoc Wireless Network
Department of Computer Science,Government Post Graduate College,Kalka, Indiasuniltaneja.firstname.lastname@example.org
Department of Computer Science,University College, KurukshetraUniversity, Kurukshetra, Indiaakush20@gmail.com
Department of Computer Science,Arya Girls College,Ambala Cantt, Indiaaman.email@example.com
Ad hoc wireless networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, infrastructureless environment and frequently changing topology. As the wireless links are highly error prone and can go down frequently due to mobility of nodes, therefore, stable routing is a very critical task due to highly dynamic environment in adhoc wireless networks. In this research paper, simulation modelling of prominent on-demand routing protocols has been done by presenting their functionality using NS2. An effort has been made to evaluate the performance of DSR and AODV on a self created scene using TCL for varying number of mobile nodes.The performance differential parameters analyzed are; packet delivery ratio and sent & received packets with varying speed and pause time. Subsequently, using results obtained after simulation, the recommendations have been made about the significance of either protocol in various situations. It has been observed that both DSR and AODV are good in performance in their own categories but the emphasis for stable and reliable routing is still on AODV as it performs better in denserenvironments.
Adhoc Wireless Networks, DSR, AODV, Routing,Simulation
INTRODUCTION TO ADHOC WIRELESS NETWOKS
The wireless networks are classified as Infrastructured orInfrastructure less. In Infrastructured wireless networks, themobile node can move while communicating, the base stationsare fixed and as the node goes out of the range of a basestation, it gets into the range of another base station. InInfrastructureless or Ad Hoc wireless network , the mobilenode can move while communicating, there are no fixed basestations and all the nodes in the network act as routers. Themobile nodes in the Ad Hoc network dynamically establishrouting among themselves to form their own network ‘on thefly’. In this research paper, intend is to study the mobilitypatterns of DSR and AODV using simulation modeling byvarying ‘number of mobile nodes’, ‘speed’, ‘pause time’,‘UDP connections’ and ‘TCP connections’. A Mobile Ad HocNetwork is a collection of wireless mobile nodes forming atemporary network without any fixed infrastructure where allnodes are free to move about arbitrarily and where all thenodes configure themselves. Unlike traditional networkswhereby routing functions are performed by dedicated nodesor routers, in MANET, routing functions are carried out by allavailable nodes. There are no fixed base stations and eachnode acts both as a router and as a host. Even the topology of network may also change rapidly. The mobile nodes in the AdHoc network dynamically establish routing among themselvesto form their own network ‘on the fly’. In essence, thenetwork is created in ad-hoc fashion by the participating nodeswithout any central administration. Further ad hoc networkscan be classified as single-hop or multi-hop. In single-hop adhoc networks, nodes are in their reach area and cancommunicate directly but in case of multi-hop, some nodes arefar and cannot communicate directly. The traffic has to beforwarded by other intermediate nodes. Ad hoc networks areprimarily meant for use by military forces or for emergencyrescue situations. At the state of war an army cannot rely onfixed infrastructure, as it is an easy and attractive target for theenemy. Ad hoc networks are optimal solution in such cases.For civil use ad hoc networks are crucial if the fixedinfrastructure has been torn down by some natural disaster,like a flood or an earthquake. Then rescue operations could insuch a situation be managed through utilizing ad hocnetworks. Mobile ad hoc networks have several advantagesover traditional wireless networks including ease of deployment, speed of deployment and decreased dependenceon a fixed infrastructure but there are certain open researchissues too in its implementation. Some of the research issues are:
Autonomous or n
Scalability, Limited security, Power Aware Routing, Self healing, Poor transmission quality, Ad hoc addressing, and Topology maintenance.
In Ad hoc network, nodes can change position quitefrequently. Each node participating in the network must bewilling to transfer packets to other nodes. For this purpose, arouting protocol is needed. Our focus in this research paper ison the stable and reliable routing over mobile adhoc networks.The proposed routing scheme is to select a stable and reliablepath in such a manner that load is balanced over the entirenetwork.
A routing protocol  is required whenever a packet needsto be transmitted to a destination via number of nodes andnumerous routing protocols have been proposed for such kindof ad hoc networks. These protocols find a route for packetdelivery and deliver the packet to the correct destination. Thestudies on various aspects of routing protocols [1, 2] havebeen an active area of research for many years. Manyprotocols have been suggested keeping applications and typeof network in view. Basically, routing protocols can bebroadly classified into two types as: Table Driven Protocols orProactive Protocols and On-Demand Protocols or ReactiveProtocols. In Table Driven routing protocols each nodemaintains one or more tables containing routing information to
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010259http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500