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Grade 11 Chemistry Part 1

Grade 11 Chemistry Part 1

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Published by Cynthia Thompson

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Published by: Cynthia Thompson on Nov 03, 2010
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07/15/2013

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 CHAPTER .1. The Electronic Structures of Atoms, Periodic Tableand Chemical Bonds
အခန္
(
)
၊ အက္တမ္မ်ား၏ အီလက္ထရြန္းနစ္ဖြစည္းပဵမ်ား ၊ ျဒပ္စင္မ်ားကိ  အစီစဥ္တက် စဥ္ထားေသာဇယား ႏွင္ဓါတုဆိင္ရာ ဓါတ္စည္းမ်ား
1.
 
Atomic Structure
 
(or) Structure of an atom
(
အက္တမ္ဖြစည္းပဵ
 1.1.
 
Fundamental Particles of Atoms
(
အက္တမ္တိ
 
အေျခခဵအမႈန္မ်ား
)
 
Atoms:
All materials are made up of tiny particles called atoms. Theatom of any element consists of three basic types of particles. They areelectrons , protons and neutrons .
ေသးငယ္ေသာအမႈန္ မ်ားျဖင္ ႔
 
 ျပဳလု ပ္
(
 ဖြ  ဲ ႔ စည္ း
)
 ထားေသာ
 
အရာှတၳဳအားလဵ  ု းကိ  ု
 
အက္ တမ္ မ်ားဟု
 
ေခၐသည္
 
 မည္သည္ ႔
 
 ျဒပ္ စင္ တိ  ုင္ း
 
 
အက္ တမ္ တြင္ မဆိ  ု
 
အေျခခဵအမႈန္
(
)
 မ်ဳိ း
 
 ပါှင္ ပါသည္
 
သူ တိ  ု ႔ေတြ
 
 ကေတာ႔
 
အီ လက္ ထရြန္
 
 
 ပရိ  ု တြန္
 
ႏွင္ ႔
 
နယူ ထရြန္
 
 တိ  ု ႔ ပဲ ျဖစ္ ၾကပါတယ္
 
Electrons:
are tiny, very light particles that have a negative electricalcharge (-).
အီ လက္ ထရြန္ေတြ ဟာ
 
ေသးငယ္
 
အလြန္ေပါ႔ ပါး
 
သည္ ႔
 
အမႈန္ မ်ားျဖစ္ ျပီ း
 
သူ ႔ မွ ာ
 
 လွ ်ပ္ စစ္ ဓါတ္အား
 
အမ
 (
 လွ ်ပ္ စစ္ ဓါတ္ မ
)
ရွ  ိ ပါတယ္
 
Protons:
are much larger and heavier than electrons and have a positivecharge (+).
 
 
 ပရိ  ု တြန္ေတြ ကေတာ႔
 
အီ လက္
 
 ထရြန္ေတြ ထက္
 
 ပိ  ု ျပီ းၾကီ းသလိ  ု
 
 ပိ  ု ျပီ းလည္ းေလးလဵ ျပီ း
 
 လွ ်ပ္ စစ္ ဓါတ္ ဖိ  ု
 
 စြ မ္ းအားရွ  ိ ပါတယ္
 
Neutrons:
are large and heavy like protons, however neutrons have noelectrical charge (or) neutral.
 
နယူ ထရြန္ေတြ ကေတာ႔
 
 ၾကီ းမားျပီ း
 
 ပရိ  ု တြန္ေတြ လိ  ု ပဲ
 
ေလးလဵ ၾကပါတယ္
 
သိ  ု ႔ေသာ္ လည္ း
 
နယူ ထရြန္ မွ ာ
 
 လွ ်စ္ စစ္ ဓါတ္
(
အဖိ  ုေရာ၊အမေရာ
)
 မရွ  ိ ပါဘူ း။
 
 တစ္နည္ းအားျဖင္ ႔
 
 လွ ်စ္ စစ္ ဓါတ္ ျပယ္သည္ ဟုေျပာနဳိင္ ပါသည္
 
1.2.
 
Arrangement of Fundamental Particles in Atoms
 
(
အက္တမ္တြင္
 
အေျခခဵ
 
အမႈန္မ်ားစီစဥ္ပဵ
)
 
Nucleus:
is the centre of atom. The nucleus of the atom is composed of two particles called neutrons and protons and one or more electrons aresurrounding the nucleus. Every neutral atom has an equal number of protonsand electrons.
 
So, the whole of atom is just empty space (or) neutral.
ႏ်ဴးကလီ းယပ္ စ္ ဟာ
 
အက္ တမ္
 
အလယ္ဗဟိ  ု ျဖစ္ တယ္
 
အက္ တမ္
 
 
ႏ်ဴးကလီ းယပ္ စ္
 
 ကိ  ု
 
နယူ ထရြန္
 
ႏွင္ ႔
 
 ပရိ  ု တြန္
 
အမႈန္
(
 ၀
)
ခု ျဖင္ ႔
 
 ဖြ  ဲ ႔ စည္ းထားျပီ း
 
 တစ္ခု
 
သိ  ု ႔ မဟု တ္
 
 တစ္ခု ထက္ ပိ  ုေသာ
 
အီ လက္ ထရြန္
 
 မ်ားက
 
 
ႏ်ဴးကလီ းယပ္ စ္ ကိ  ု
 
 ှိ  ုင္ းရဵ
 
 လွည္ ႔ ပတ္ေနၾကသည္။ဓါတ္ ျပယ္ေနတဲ ႔
 
အက္ တမ္ တိ  ုင္ းမွ ာ
 
 ပရိ  ု တြန္အေရအတြ က္ မ်ား
 
ႏွင္ ႔
 
အီ လက္ ထရြန္အေရအတြ က္ မ်ား
 
 တူညီေနၾကတယ္
 
ဒါေၾကာင္ ႔
 
အက္ တမ္ တစ္ခု လဵ  ု းဟာ
 
ဘာမွ မရွ  ိ တဲ ႔
 
 လြ တ္ေနတဲ ႔ေနရာ
(
သိ  ု ႔
)
 ဓါတ္ ျပယ္ေနျခင္ းျဖစ္သည္
(
ေအာက္ေဖာ္ ျပပါ
 
 ပဵ  ု ကိ  ု
 
ေလ႔ လာၾကည္ ႔ ပါ
)
 
1.3. Atomic number
 
(
အက္တမ္အမွတ္စဥ္
)
 
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomicnumber. It is represented by the symbol Z . The atomic number of an elementnever changes, meaning that the number of protons in the nucleus of everyatom in an element is always the same.
 
အက္ တမ္ တစ္ခု
 
ႏ်ဴးကလီ းယပ္ စ္
 
 မွ ာရွ  ိသည္
 
 ႔
 
 ပရိ  ု တြန္ မ်ား
 
 
အေရတြ က္ ကိ  ု
 
အက္ တမ္
 
အမွ တ္ စဥ္
 
 ဟုေခၐပါသည္
 
အက္ တမ္အမွ တ္ စဥ္ ကိ  ု
 
သေကၤ တအားျဖင္ ႔
 
အဂၤ လိ ပ္ စာလဵ  ု း
 
Z
 
 ျဖင္ ႔
 
ေဖာ္ ျပၾကပါတယ္
 
 ျဒပ္ စင္ တိ  ုင္ း၏
 
အက္ တမ္အမွ တ္ စဥ္ မ်ားဟာ
 
ဘယ္ေတာ႔ မွ
 
 မေျပာင္ းလဲ ပါဘူ း။
 
ဆိ  ု လိ  ု တာကေတာ႔
 
 ျဒပ္ စင္
 
အက္ တမ္အားလဵ  ု း၏
 
ႏ်ဴးကလီ းယပ္ စ္
 
 မွ ာရွ  ိ တဲ
 
 ပရိ  ု တြန္အေရအတြ က္ေတြ က
 
အျမဲ တမ္ းတူ
 
ညီေနလိ  ု ႔ ပါပဲ
 

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