Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword or section
Like this
1Activity

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses

Ratings: (0)|Views: 46 |Likes:
Published by Hasan Sevilen
A research by Congressional Research Service about US policies about Iran.
A research by Congressional Research Service about US policies about Iran.

More info:

Published by: Hasan Sevilen on Nov 03, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/19/2012

pdf

text

original

 
CRS Report for Congress
Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy Responses
Kenneth Katzman
Specialist in Middle Eastern AffairsSeptember 22, 2010
Congressional Research Service
7-5700www.crs.govRL32048
 
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy ResponsesCongressional Research Service
Summary
The Obama Administration views Iran as a major threat to U.S. national security interests, aperception is generated not only by Iran’s nuclear program but also by its military assistance toarmed groups in Iraq and Afghanistan, to the Palestinian group Hamas, and to LebaneseHezbollah. Particularly in its first year, the Obama Administration altered the previous U.S.approach by expanding direct diplomatic engagement with Iran’s government and by offeringIran’s leaders an alternative vision of closer integration with and acceptance by the West. To try toconvince Iranian leaders of peaceful U.S. intent, the Obama Administration downplayeddiscussion of potential U.S. military action against Iranian nuclear facilities and repeatedlyinsisted that it did not seek to change Iran’s regime. It held to this position even at the height of the protests by the domestic opposition “Green movement” that emerged following Iran’s June12, 2009, presidential election.Iran’s refusal to accept the details of an October 1, 2009, tentative agreement to lessen concernsabout its nuclear intentions—coupled with its crackdown on the Green movement—caused theAdministration, in 2010, to shift toward building multilateral support for strict economicsanctions against Iran. The Administration efforts bore fruit on June 9, 2009 when a U.N. SecurityCouncil was adopted (Resolution 1929) that required countries to take a number of significantsteps against Iran, including banning major arms sales to Iran, and authorized a number of additional significant steps. During July-September 2010, the European Union, Japan, SouthKorea, and other countries announced multilateral sanctions against Iran that use much of theauthorities of Resolution 1929, and which also supports elements of U.S. legislations passed inJune 2010 (the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and Divestment Act, P.L. 11-195).Still, the Administration and its partners assert that these sanctions are intended to pave the wayfor successful diplomacy with Iran to limit its nuclear program.Many observers assess that the U.S., U.N., and other “national” sanctions enacted since mid-2010are pressing Iran economically. However, because the sanctions have not and might not cause Iranto fundamentally alter its commitment to its nuclear program, the Administration reportedly hasrevived deliberations of possible military action to try to set Iran’s nuclear program back. Otheroptions include methods to contain Iran if it does become a nuclear armed power. Some believethat only domestic opposition in Iran, which in late 2009 appeared to pose a potentially seriouschallenge to the regime’s grip on power, may provide a clear opportunity to reduce the potentialthreat of a nuclear Iran. Obama Administration officials appear to believe that the opposition’sprospects are enhanced by a low U.S. public profile on the unrest. Congressional resolutions andlegislation since mid-2009 show growing congressional support for steps to enhance theopposition’s prospects. Others maintain that the prospects for the domestic opposition, which hasbeen largely absent from the streets in 2010, are poor, and that other options are fraught withrisks, and that the Administration should return to a focus on reaching a nuclear agreement withIran. For further information, see CRS Report RS20871,
 Iran Sanctions
; CRS Report R40849,
 Iran: Regional Perspectives and U.S. Policy
; and CRS Report RL34544,
 Iran’s Nuclear Program: Status
.
 
Iran: U.S. Concerns and Policy ResponsesCongressional Research Service
Contents
Political History..........................................................................................................................1
 
Regime Structure, Stability, and Opposition................................................................................2
 
The Supreme Leader, His Powers, and Other Ruling Councils...............................................2
 
The Presidency/Mahmoud Ahmadinejad...............................................................................7
 
Ahmadinejad’s Policies, Political Position, and Relations with Khamene’i......................8
 
June 12, 2009, Presidential Elections.............................................................................10
 
Domestic Unrest: Election Dispute and Emergence of the “Green Movement”....................11
 
Green Movement Formation.........................................................................................11
 
How Shaken and Divided Is the Regime?......................................................................12
 
Additional Political Fallout of Economic Sanctions.......................................................13
 
Armed Opposition Factions.................................................................................................13
 
People’s Mojahedin Organization of Iran (PMOI)/Camp Ashraf....................................14
 
Pro-Monarchy Radical Groups......................................................................................16
 
Ethnic or Religiously Based Armed Groups...................................................................16
 
Other Human Rights Practices...................................................................................................16
 
Iran’s Strategic Capabilities and Weapons of Mass Destruction Programs..................................19
 
Conventional Military/Revolutionary Guard/Qods Force.....................................................19
 
Nuclear Program and Related International Diplomacy.......................................................22
 
Iranian Recent Nuclear Activities..................................................................................22
 
Iran’s Arguments...........................................................................................................23
 
The International Response...........................................................................................24
 
The International Response Under the Obama Administration.......................................28
 
Possible Additional International and Multilateral Sanctions to Address Iran’sNuclear Program........................................................................................................32
 
Chemical Weapons, Biological Weapons, and Missiles........................................................34
 
Ballistic Missiles/Warheads...........................................................................................34
 
Foreign Policy and Support for Terrorist Groups.......................................................................35
 
Relations with the Persian Gulf States.................................................................................36
 
Iranian Policy in Iraq...........................................................................................................39
 
Supporting Palestinian Militant Groups...............................................................................39
 
Iran and Hamas.............................................................................................................40
 
Lebanese Hezbollah and Syria.............................................................................................40
 
Syria.............................................................................................................................42
 
Central Asia and the Caspian...............................................................................................42
 
South Asia: Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India ......................................................................43
 
Afghanistan..................................................................................................................43
 
Pakistan........................................................................................................................44
 
India.............................................................................................................................44
 
Al Qaeda.............................................................................................................................44
 
Latin America.....................................................................................................................45
 
Venezuela.....................................................................................................................46
 
Africa.................................................................................................................................46
 
U.S. Policy Approaches and Additional Options........................................................................46
 
Clinton Administration Policy.......................................................................................47
 
George W. Bush Administration Policy.........................................................................48
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->