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FA Nov1 Lecture

FA Nov1 Lecture

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Published by: 3d3 on Nov 03, 2010
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TRAUMA ANALYSIS : Blunt Trauma & Pattern InjuryTrauma Analysis
y
 
Antemortem
o
 
H
ealing
y
 
Perimortem
o
 
G
reenstick
y
 
Postmortem
o
 
Staining (discoloration)Trauma
y
 
Serious shock or injury to the body from violence or accident
y
 
Blunt force trauma  non-penetrating injuries resulting from an impact with a dull, firmsurface or object.Types of fractures
y
 
See online picture
o
 
C
omminuted (hard to heal, lots of pieces)
o
 
G
reenstick (strain lines, bending)
o
 
H
airline/ incomplete
o
 
O
blique
o
 
Spiral (child abuse)
o
 
Simple / transverse
o
 
ImpactedBlunt force trauma
y
 
C
haracterized by discontinuities and fracture lines
y
 
Implement sometimes difficult to tell
o
 
Baseball bat
o
 
Rock
o
 
Metal objects
o
 
Parts of car in automobile crash
o
 
G
lass bottle
y
 
F
ractures usually emanate from point of impact
o
 
Ex
ception  Ribs
 
C
ompression 0 point of tension
y
 
F
ractures take path of resistance
o
 
D
iastatic fractures
o
 
W
eak portion of bone
y
 
Plastic deformation
 
o
 
Bone is deformed from slow forces of blow
F
alls 
W
rists
y
 
C
olles / Smith
F
racture
o
 
D
istal radius
o
 
Mechanism
 
C
olles  fall on an e
x
tended outstretched hand with straight elbow
y
 
D
orsal displacement
 
Smith -
F
all on a fle
x
ed hand
y
 
V
olar displacement
y
 
Salter I or II
F
ractureReview 2
y
 
Se
x
(biological) vs. gender (social)
o
 
D
ifferences between se
x
es
o
 
Pathologists vs. Anthropologists
o
 
HO
W
 
D
OE
S pathologist determine se
x
vs. anthropologist (bones v. flesh)
y
 
Bones used
o
 
Skull (brow ridge, mandible, shape of forehead, inion hook)/ pelvis (shape sciatic notch,subpubic angle, sciatic notch)/ others (femoral head, ossification of ribs)
 
F
eatures
o
 
Se
x
divisions
y
 
Non-metric / MetricAge
y
 
Aging divisions (neonatal fetal, child, adult)
y
 
F
etus aging methods (length of fetus -> look up rule)
y
 
C
hild aging methods
o
 
E
piphyseal union (fusion of long bones) order of fusion
o
 
D
ental eruption
 
3
major molars (6, 12, 18 years old)
o
 
Adult aging methods (metamorphic, pubic symphysis of young people with ridges,fillowy  old people looks flat, bony growthys) (degenerative changes  dental loss,osteoarthiritis)Stature
y
 
Methods
o
 
F
ormula  how developed (using known individuals)
 
o
 
Reasons for errors  then and now (poor health, not fully descriptive,)
y
 
Bones for estimation
o
 
O
rder in Bio profile
o
 
Long bones (femur)
o
 
K
now se
x
+ ancestryAncestry
y
 
D
efinitions
o
 
Race/ Ancestry/
E
thnicity
o
 
V
ariation (groups :
E
uropean, African, Asian, Native-American) (clinal variation)
y
 
D
ifficulties
y
 
Body proportion laws
y
 
Reasons we do it
y
 
D
atabank/
FO
R
D
IS
C
 
y
 
Bones used
o
 
F
eatures
y
 
Non-metric/MetricIdentification
y
 
W
hy I
D?
 
y
 
Positive (mt
D
NA, wallet/ tattoo) / Presumptive evidence (nuclear
D
NA, fingerprints, X-rays)
o
 
Types
o
 
Uses
y
 
Idiosyncratic/ life history/ individualizing
o
 
Trauma, devices, dental
y
 
C
omparisons
o
 
Antemortem, postmortem
 
Requirements
F
orensic Art
y
 
Types of art
o
 
Uses
o
 
Limits of each (subjective, not as scientific)
y
 
C
ourt
y
 
Program
o
 
Advantages
o
 
D
isadvantagesMilitary I
D
 
y
 
J
PA
C
 

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