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2200103-Unix-Tut

2200103-Unix-Tut

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Published by Jason Steinberger

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Published by: Jason Steinberger on Nov 03, 2010
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UNIX/INTRODUCTION
This book is a Guide to UNIX and Unix-like operating systems, such as GNU/Linux and *BSD. Other systems like Mac OS X, Solaris, and OSF/Tru64 also belong in the list.Because of this book's incomplete state, it might be hard to find the chapter that you want.Edit this paragraphGuide to UNIX is incomplete. At Wikibooks, you can edit this book now. (If you are reading a mirror,then you can go to the editable version of this book.) Here are some suggestions for improvements:improve modules, add detailadd modules, follow naming policyenforce neutral point of view, reduce bias provide graphics, follow image policyfix bad info, spelling, grammar  put questions and comments on talk pagesContents [hide]1 Structure of this book 2 Conventions2.1 Shell prompt2.2 Commands and files2.3 Audience2.4 Command links[edit] Structure of this book After this introduction, there are three main parts of this book.The Why Unix-like page introduces the Unix system-like platform. The various Platforms such as BSDthen highlight particular Unix-like distributions. This book needs to add more platform pages other than BSD and Linux.The Explanations section contains a list of various topics which introduce and explain the use andadministration of Unix-like systems. For example, Explanations/Shell Prompt introduces the shell prompt, and Explanations/Filesystems and Swap explains the use of storage devices. Many of thesections are incomplete or missing, but this section is being expanded. The current division into six parts might need to be changed later.The Quick References chapters list the Environment Variables, Files, Commands. There actually is notmuch here except for the Commands section.[edit] ConventionsThis book uses (or will use) the following conventions.[edit] Shell promptThe shell prompt looks like:$A root shell prompt (see Explanations/Becoming Root) looks like:#When the user types commands or other text, it appears in bold. The following is an example. The user typed the "cat" command and then several lines which the computer echoed.$ catThis is an example.
 
This is an example.^D $Control characters are written like ^D. This means to hold the Control key and press D. Note that somecontrol characters sometimes do not appear on the screen. For example, the user typed ^D but no "^D"actually appears on the screen.[edit] Commands and filesThis convention might need improvement. Currently, a good example is Explanations/Shell Prompt.A command name is introduced in bold, like uname. Later, it is mentioned as "uname". In the future,the bold version might be a link to the command in Commands.Filenames usually appear like /dev/null and /etc/ssh/sshd_config. Entire commands look like ls/dev/null /etc/sshd_config or echo a1 a2 a3. Mentioning again the parts or arguments of thesecommands looks like "a1" and "a2". When introducing a new part (like a new option) not mentioned before, that looks like -r or -o loop. Text from files is also quoted, for example "# comment".[edit] AudienceThis is a proposed convention, because it is mostly unimplemented in this book.The book targets multiple audiences.Unix or non-Unix users seeking backgroundUnix system users (background and user instructions)Unix system administrators (background and administrator instructions)To handle this, there might be some templates.{{Guide to UNIX:u}} begin user instructions{{Guide to UNIX:eu}} end user instructions{{Guide to UNIX:i}} begin administrator instructions{{Guide to UNIX:ei}} end administrator instructions
UNIX/WHY UNIX-LIKE
The operating system installed on many servers and some workstations is Unix-like. But what does itmean to be like Unix? In this book, a Unix-like system is one that is similar to *BSD, GNU/Linux,Solaris, and the original Unix. Today, Mac OS X also qualifies as a Unix-like system.Contents [hide]1 General Concepts2 The shell3 The C language4 The kernel and userland5 Neutral point of view[edit] General ConceptsAs opposed to the (point and click) (graphical user interfaces) familiar to the general computer user,work usually gets done in unix in a text-based way, through what's known as the (command line shell).As opposed to a (single-user) operating system which permits computer usage only by one person atone particular time, unix is a multi-user) system, that allows access of multiple users to the computer simultaneously. Normally this is achieved by having the users access the system (remotely), throughdigital networks.
 
Whether accessing (remotely) or not, users need a (user account) before being granted access to thesystem; for the purposes of accounting, security, logging and resource management.Since each particular user account has varying degrees of control over the system and its resources,having the ability to verify the true identity of a given user is crucial, so a method exists that verifieseach user account (username) against a corresponding (password); in a process known as (logging in).All Unix-like systems are similar. As with many operating systems for servers, the Unix-like systemscan host multiple users and programs simultaneously. Some features are specific to Unix-like systems.The Unix-like systems provide a common command line interface called the shell. They also provide acommon programming interface for the C language. The latter fact allows most Unix-like systems torun the same application software and desktop environments.Unix is popular with programmers for a variety of reasons. A primary reason for its popularity is the building-block approach, where a suite of simple tools can be streamed together to produce verysophisticated results. Another reason is the philosophy that 'everything is a file', which means that astandardized set of operations and functionality can be performed on different file types (directories vs.regular files), hardware devices, and even system processes.[edit] The shellWikipedia has more about this subject:Unix shellThe shell is a program unique to Unix-like systems. It lets you type commands to launchother programs.When you login to the system through a text-only terminal, Unix gives you a login shell. If your systemhas a graphical user interface such as GNOME, KDE, or anything that uses X Window System, youcan access the shell through a program called a console emulator or terminal emulator. This emulatesthe text-only terminal that the shell requires for running.Unfortunately, the shell and the commands are hard to learn. Further, many commands require"arguments" to work. For example, the rm command, which removes files, needs one or more"arguments" naming the files to delete. This book has a Explanations/Shell Prompt chapter whichintroduces the shell and its many features.One can automate tasks by saving shell commands in a text file called a shell script. For example, shellscripts are used to boot the system.The Unix shell is unique to Unix-like systems. Actually, there are multiple shells available for Unix.These shells extend their features in different ways. For the "Bourne-compatible" shells, there is a book in Wikibooks,Bourne Shell Scripting, to describe them. Most shell scripts are for Bourne-compatibleshells.[edit] The C languageUnix is the origin of the popular C language. Every program on the computer links to the C librarywhich provides basic system features including access to the kernel. Even if an application is written inanother language, like C++, it still links to the C library. An interpreted language like perl needs a perlinterpreter linked to the C library.This dependence on C can be a disadvantage. Most Unix-like kernels are written entirely in C; mostcommon programs use C, C++ or Objective-C. It is difficult to add code to these programs in another language such as Fortran. In contrast, some non-Unix systems allow different programming languagesto interact more easily.This book does not describe how to program with C; that is the job of the book Programming:C.However, planned additions to this book will describe how to build and run Unix programs when youobtain their C source code.

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