Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
5Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Performance Tests on Helical Savonius Rotors

Performance Tests on Helical Savonius Rotors

Ratings: (0)|Views: 860|Likes:
Published by Souraj Patel

More info:

Published by: Souraj Patel on Nov 03, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/26/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Performance tests on helical Savonius rotors
M.A. Kamoji
a
, S.B. Kedare
a
, S.V. Prabhu
b
,
*
a
Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
a r t i c l e i n f o
 Article history:
Received 27 January 2008Accepted 5 June 2008Available online 26 July 2008
Keywords:
Helical Savonius rotorConventional Savonius rotorCoefficient of powerCoefficient of static torque
a b s t r a c t
Conventional Savonius rotors have high coefficient of static torque at certain rotor angles and a negativecoefficient of static torque from 135
to 165
and from 315
to 345
in one cycle of 360
. In order todecrease this variation in static torque from 0
to 360
, a helical Savonius rotor with a twist of 90
isproposed. In this study, tests on helical Savonius rotors are conducted in an open jet wind tunnel.Coefficient of static torque, coefficient of torque and coefficient of power for each helical Savonius rotorare measured. The performance of helical rotor with shaft between the end plates and helical rotorwithout shaft between the end plates at different overlap ratios namely 0.0, 0.1 and 0.16 is compared.Helical Savonius rotor without shaft is also compared with the performance of the conventional Savoniusrotor. The results indicate that all the helical Savonius rotors have positive coefficient of static torque atall the rotor angles. The helical rotors with shaft have lower coefficient of power than the helical rotorswithout shaft. Helical rotor without shaft at an overlap ratio of 0.0 and an aspect ratio of 0.88 is found tohave almost the same coefficient of power when compared with the conventional Savonius rotor. Cor-relation for coefficient of torque and power is developed for helical Savonius rotor for a range of Reynoldsnumbers studied.
Ó
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Savonius[1]rotor is ‘‘S-shaped’’ cross-section constructed bytwo semi-circular buckets. The concept of Savonius rotor is basedon the principle developed by Flettner. It is simple in structure, hasgood starting characteristics, operates at relatively low operatingspeeds, and has ability to accept wind from any direction. Itsaerodynamic efficiency is lower than that of other types of windturbines such as Darrieus and propeller rotors. Savonius rotor isconsidered to be a drag machine. This means that the main drivingforceisdragforceofwindactingonitsblade.However,atlowangleof attacks, lift force also contributes to torque production[2].Hence, Savonius rotor is not a pure drag machine but a compoundmachine and hence can go beyond the limitation of Cp of a pri-marily drag type machine (Cp
max
¼
0.08 for plate type turbine,Manwelletal.[3]).AlthoughconventionalSavoniusrotorshavelowaerodynamic efficiency, they have a high starting torque or highcoefficient of static torque. Due to this they are used at starters forother types of wind turbines that have lower starting torques.Though the starting torque is high, it is not uniform at all the rotorangles. Atcertainrotorangles, conventional Savoniusrotors cannotstart on their own as the coefficient of static torque is negative.Conventional Savonius rotor is having negative torque for the rotorangles in the range of 135–165
and from 315
to 345
. Literaturesuggests that two stage and three stage conventional Savoniusrotors could overcome this problem of negative torque[4,5].However, with the increase in the number of stages, the maximumcoefficient of power decreases as reported by Kamoji et al.[4]andHayashi et al.[5]. The use of three bladed single stage rotor, witheach blade at 120
also reduces the torque variation in a rotorcyclebut the coefficient of power decreases as reported by Shankar[6]and Sheldahl et al.[7].Saha and JayaRajkumar[8]report that twisted three bladed Savonius rotor with a twist angle of 15
hasa maximum coefficient of power of 0.14 (tip speed ratio of 0.65)compared to 0.11 for a three bladed conventional Savonius rotor.Helical Savonius rotors could provide positive coefficient of statictorque.Helixcanbedefined as a curvegeneratedbya markermoving vertically at a constant velocity on a rotating cylinder (ata constant angular velocity).Fig. 1shows a single helical rotorblade. The inner edge remains vertical whereas the outer edgeundergoes a twistof 90
(a quarter pitch turn). The blade retains itssemi-circular cross-section from the bottom (0
) to the top (90
).Combination of two such blades is called as a helical Savonius rotorin this study. In spite of its good promise on generating positivestatictorquecoefficient,thereisnoinformationonhelicalSavoniusrotor in the open literature. Hence, the main objective of thepresent study is to experimentally investigate the effect of overlap
*
Corresponding author. Tel.:
þ
91 22 25767515; fax:
þ
91 22 25726875,25723480.
E-mail addresses:
Contents lists available atScienceDirect
Renewable Energy
0960-1481/$ – see front matter
Ó
2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.renene.2008.06.002
Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 521–529
 
ratio (0.0, 0.1 and 0.16), aspect ratio (0.88, 0.93 and 1.17) and Rey-nolds number for a 90
twist, shaft-less helical rotor at Reynoldsnumbers of 120,000 and 150,000 on coefficient of power,coefficient of torque and coefficient of static torque. Effect of thepresence of shaft for a 90
twist helical rotor is covered. Theseexperimental results are compared with the conventional Savoniusrotor.
2. Experimental set-up and procedure
Uniform mainflowis produced byanopen jet-typewindtunneldriven bya two 7.4 kW contra rotating fans. Air exits from a squarecontractionnozzlewithawindtunneloutletof400 mm
Â
400 mm.Rotorsto be tested are placed at a distance of 750 mm downstreamof thewindtunnelnozzleexitsuchthatthecentreof thestationaryor rotating rotor is in line with the centre of the wind tunnel exit.The measured velocity distribution at the rotor position is uniformwithin
Æ
1% in the central area of 250 mm
Â
250 mm. The maxi-mum size of all the helical rotor models tested in this study iswithin 250 mm
Â
250 mm.Fig. 2shows the schematic of the experimental set-up forconducting tests on helical Savonius rotors. Experimental set-upconsists of a structure housing the helical Savonius rotor fabricatedusing studs and mild steel plates. The mild steel plates are held inplace by means of washers and nuts. Two bearings (UC 204, NTNmake) bolted to the mild steel plates support the helical Savoniusrotor. The usage of studs, nuts and bolts facilitated easyreplacement of rotors of different diameters and positioning of rotor centre at the centre of the wind tunnel. The wind velocity isdetermined by a pitot tube connected to a micro manometer(Furness Controls make FC012). A brake drum dynamometer isused for loading the helical Savonius rotor. The weighing pan,pulley and spring balance (Salter make) are connected by a fishingnylon string of 1 mm diameter.Frictionisanimportantparameterthataffectsthemeasurementof torque of the rotating helical Savonius rotor. Friction in thebearings and the 1 mm nylon wire string wound on the rotor shaft
Fig. 1.
A schematic of a single helical rotor blade.
Nomenclature
 A
aspect ratio
a
overlap distance (m)
B
blockage ratioCp coefficient of powerCp
max
maximum coefficient of powerCt coefficient of torqueCts coefficient of static torqueCts
max
maximum coefficient of static torqueCts
min
minimum coefficient of static torque
D
rotor diameter (m)Do end plate diameter (m)
G
overlap ratio
rotor height (m)
w
height of wind tunnel exit (m)
mass (gms.)
R
blade radius (m)
Re
Reynolds number
rope
radius of the shaft (mm)
shaft
diameter of the string (mm)
spring balance reading (g)
torque (N-m)Ts static torque (N-m)TSR tip speed ratio
free stream wind velocity (ms
À
1
)
Greek symbols
r
density of air
m
absolute viscosity of air (Pas)
u
angular velocity of rotor (rads
À
1
)
56471231. Pulley2. Nylon string3. Weighing pan4. Spring balance5. Helical Savonius rotor6. Shaft7. Structure
Fig. 2.
Schematic diagram of the set-up.
M.A. Kamoji et al. / Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 521–529
522
 
must be minimized. The seals are removed from the bearings andbearings are washed in petrol to remove the grease beforemounting resulting in the reduction of friction. Wind velocity isadjusted corresponding to a given Reynolds number and the rotoris allowed to rotate from no load speed. Rotational speed of therotor is recorded bya non-contact type tachometer. Each bearing issprayed with W-D 40 (a commercially available spray) lubricantbefore each reading[9]. The rotor is loaded gradually to recordspring balance reading, weights and rotational speed of the rotor.Asetoftestsarecarriedtocalculatethestatictorqueoftherotorat a given rotor angle using the brake drum measuring system. Thestatictorqueoftherotorismeasuredatevery15
oftherotorangle.At a given wind velocity, the rotor is loaded to prevent it fromrotationatagivenrotorangle.Thevaluesofloadandspringbalancereading are recorded to calculate the static torque at a given rotorangle.
3. Data reduction
Reynolds number based on the rotor diameter is given by
Re
¼
r
UD
m
(1)
where,
Re
is Reynolds number ,
r
is the density of air,
is the freestream velocity,
D
is the rotor diameter and
m
is the absolute vis-cosity of air.Tip speed ratio is given by
TSR 
¼
u
D
2
(2)
where
u
is the angular velocity of the rotor.Torque calculated from the measured load and spring balanceload is given by
¼ð
À
Þ
À
shaft
þ
rope
Á
 g 
1000(3)
where,
is the load,
is spring balance load,
shaft
is the radius of the shaft,
rope
is the radius of the nylon string.Coefficient of torque (Ct), coefficient of static torque (Cts) andcoefficient of power (Cp) are given by
Ct
¼
4
r
2
D
2
(4)
Cts
¼
4Ts
r
2
D
2
(5)Cp
¼
TSR 
Â
Ct (6)
Blockage ratio (
B
) is given by
B
¼
HD
w
(7)
where,
w
is the height of the wind tunnel exit and
is the widthof the wind tunnel exit.The maximum blockage ratio is within 39% for all the helicalrotor models studied. The effect of blockage ratio is negligible onCp, Ct and Cts for rotors in an open jet wind tunnel as reported byKamoji et al.[4]. Uncertainties in various basic parameters,coefficientofstatictorqueandcoefficientofpowerarepresentedinTable 1. The uncertainties in the coefficient of static torque andcoefficient of power at the maximum coefficient of power arearound 4.5% and 4.8%, respectively. Uncertainty calculations arecarried out based on Moffat[10].
4. Rotors covered in this study 
The helical Savonius rotors (with and without shaft in betweenthe end plates) with a twist of 90
are fabricated in a rapid proto-typing machine.Fig. 3(a) shows a helical Savonius rotor with shaftin between the end plates. Two helical Savonius rotor blades eachwith a twist of 90
are assembled at an appropriate overlap ratio to
 Table 1
Uncertainties of various parametersParameter Uncertainty (%)Tip speed ratio 2.5Coefcient of static torque 4.5Coefcient of power 4.8
Fig. 3.
Helical Savonius rotors (a) with provision for shaft between the end plates; (b) and (c) two views of helical rotor without shaft between the end plates.
 Table 2
Details of overlap ratio, aspect ratio and rotor diameter of helical Savonius rotorscovered in this studyRotor number Overlap ratio (
a
/
D
) Aspect ratio (
/
D
) Rotor diameter
D
’ (mm)1 With shaft 1.0 2242 0.00 0.88 2303 0.00 0.93 2304 0.00 1.2 2115 0.10 1.0 2156 0.16 1.0 215
M.A. Kamoji et al. / Renewable Energy 34 (2009) 521–529
523

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
dancielz liked this
asdfgh liked this
wil1957 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->