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Thermo 5th Chap08 P079

Thermo 5th Chap08 P079

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8-60
8-79 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R-134a vapor. The tank is connected to a supply line, and R-
134a is allowed to enter the tank. The mass of the R-134a that entered the tank and the exergy destroyed
during this process are to be determined.
Assumptions1This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant.2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.3 There are no work interactions involved.4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A-11 through A-13)
K
kJ/kg
0.91303
=
kJ/kg
253.81
=
kg
/
m
0.01672
=
vapor
sat.
MPa
2
.
1
MPa
2
.
1
@
1
MPa
2
.
1
@
1
3
MPa
2
.
1
@
1
1
=
=
=
=
g
g
g
s
s
u
u
P
v
v
Q
R-134a
R-134a
0.1 m3
1.2 MPa
Sat. vapor
1.6 MPa
30°C
K
kJ/kg
0.45315
=
kJ/kg
125.94
=
kg
/
m
0.0009166
=
liquid
sat.
MPa
4
.
1
MPa
4
.
1
@
2
MPa
4
.
1
@
2
3
MPa
4
.
1
@
2
2
=
=
=
=
f
f
f
s
s
u
u
T
v
v
K
kJ/kg
34554
.
0
kJ/kg
56
.
93
C
30
MPa
6
.
1
=
=
°
=
=
i
i
i
i
s
h
T
P
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume. Noting that the microscopic energies
of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpyh and internal energyu, respectively, the
mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be expressed as
Mass balance:
1
2
system
out
in
m
m
m
m
m
m
i
=
=
Energy balance:
)
0
pe
ke
(since
1
1
2
2
in
energies
etc.
potential,
kinetic,
internal,
in
Change
system
mass
and
work,
heat,
by
nsfer
energy tra
Net
out
in
=
+
=
W
u
m
u
m
h
m
Q
E
E
E
i
i
4
3
42
1
43
42
1
(a) The initial and the final masses in the tank are
kg
109.10
/kg
m
0.0009166
m
0.1
kg
.983
5
/kg
m
0.01672m
0.1
3
3
2
2
2
3
3
1
1
1
=
=
=
=
=
=
v
V
v
V
m
m
Then from the mass balance
kg
103.11
=
=
=
983
.
5
10
.
109
1
2
m
m
mi
The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be
(
)
(
) (
)(
)
kJ
2573
kJ/kg
253.81
kg
5.983
kJ/kg
125.94
)
10
.
109
(
kJ/kg)
56
.
93
(
kg
103.11
1
1
2
2
in
=
+
=
+
=
u
m
u
m
h
m
Q
i
i
(b) The exergy destroyed during a process can be determined from an exergy balance or directly from its
definition
. The entropy generationS
gen
0
destroyed
S
T
X
=
gen in this case is determined from an entropy
balance on an extended system that includes the tank and its immediate surroundings so that the boundary
temperature of the extended system is the surroundings temperatureTsurrat all times. It gives
{
0
in
1
1
2
2
gen
tank
1
1
2
2
tank
gen
in
b,
in
entropy
in
Change
system
generation
Entropy
gen
mass
and
heat
by
ansfer
entropy tr
Net
out
in
)
(
=
T
Q
s
m
s
m
s
m
S
s
m
s
m
S
S
s
m
T
Q
S
S
S
S
i
i
i
i
=
=
+
+
→
=
+
4
3
42
1
4
3
42
1
Substituting, the exergy destruction is determined to be
[
]
kJ
80.3
=
×
×
×
=
=
=
K)
kJ)/(318
2573
(
0.34554
11
.
103
91303
.
0
983
.
5
45315
.
0
109.10
K)
318
(
0
in
1
1
2
2
0
gen
0
destroyed
T
Q
s
m
s
m
s
m
T
S
T
X
i
i
8-61
8-80 A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquid water. A valve at the bottom of the tank is opened, and
half of mass in liquid form is withdrawn from the tank. The temperature in the tank is maintained constant.
The amount of heat transfer, the reversible work, and the exergy destruction during this process are to be
determined.
Assumptions1This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains
constant.2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.3 There are no work interactions involved.4 The
direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).
H2O
0.6 m3
170°C
T = const.
Q
Properties The properties of water are (Tables A-4 through A-6)
K
kJ/kg
2.0417
kJ/kg
.08
719
liquid
sat.
C
0
17
K
kJ/kg
2.0417
kJ/kg
.20
718
/kg
m
0.001114
liquid
sat.
C
0
17
C
0
17
@
C
0
17
@
C
0
17
@
1
C
0
17
@
1
3
C
0
17
@
1
1
=
=
=
=
°
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
°
=
o
o
o
o
o
f
e
f
e
e
f
f
f
s
s
h
h
T
s
s
u
u
T
v
v
me
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpyh and
internal energyu, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
2
1
system
out
in
m
m
m
m
m
m
e
=
=
Energy balance:
)
0
pe
ke
(since
1
1
2
2
in
energies
etc.
potential,
kinetic,
internal,
in
Change
system
mass
and
work,
heat,
by
nsfer
energy tra
Net
out
in
+
=
=
W
u
m
u
m
h
m
Q
E
E
E
e
e
4
3
42
1
43
42
1
The initial and the final masses in the tank are
(
)
e
m
m
m
m
=
kg
.24
269
kg
538.47
2
1
2
1
kg
.47
538
/kg
m
0.001114
m
0.6
1
2
3
3
1
1
=
=
=
=
=
=v
V
Now we determine the final internal energy and entropy,
(
)(
)
(
)(
)
K
kJ/kg
2.0630
4.6233
0.004614
2.0417
kJ/kg
.77
726
1857.5
0.004614
.20
718
004614
.
0
C
0
17
0.004614
0.001114
0.24260
0.001114
0.002229
/kg
m
0.002229
kg
269.24
m
0.6
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
2
2
=
+
=
+
=
=
+
=
+
=
=
°
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
fg
f
fg
f
fg
f
s
x
s
s
u
x
u
u
x
T
x
m
v
v
v
V
v
The heat transfer during this process is determined by substituting these values into the energy balance
equation,
(
)(
) (
)(
) (
)(
kJ
2545
=
+
=
+
=
kJ/kg
718.20
kg
538.47
kJ/kg
726.77
kg
269.24
kJ/kg
719.08
kg
269.24
1
1
2
2
in
u
m
u
m
h
m
Q
e
e
)
8-62
(b) The exergy destroyed during a process can be determined from an exergy balance or directly from its
definition
. The entropy generationS
gen
0
destroyed
S
T
X
=
gen in this case is determined from an entropy
balance on an extended system that includes the tank and the region between the tank and the source so that
the boundary temperature of the extended system at the location of heat transfer is the source temperature
Tsourceat all times. It gives
{
source
in
1
1
2
2
gen
tank
1
1
2
2
tank
gen
in
b,
in
entropy
in
Change
system
generation
Entropy
gen
mass
and
heat
by
ansfer
entropy tr
Net
out
in
)
(
=
S
S
TQ
s
m
s
m
s
m
S
s
m
s
m
S
S
s
m
T
Q
S
S
e
e
e
e
+
=
=
+
=
+
4
3
42
1
4
3
42
1
Substituting, the exergy destruction is determined to be
[
]
kJ
141.2
=
×
×
×
=
+
=
=
K)
kJ)/(523
2545
(
0417
.
2
269.24
+
0417
.
2
47
.
538
0630
.
2
24
.
269
K)
298
(
source
in
1
1
2
2
0
gen
0
destroyed
TQ
s
m
s
m
s
m
T
S
T
X
e
e
For processes that involve no actual work, the reversible work output and exergy destruction are identical.
Therefore,
kJ
141.2
=
=
=
destroyed
out
rev,
out
act,
out
rev,
destroyed
X
W
W
W
X

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