8-60

8-79 A rigid tank initially contains saturated R-134a vapor. The tank is connected to a supply line, and R-

134a is allowed to enter the tank. The mass of the R-134a that entered the tank and the exergy destroyed

during this process are to be determined.

Assumptions1This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the

process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains

constant.2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.3 There are no work interactions involved.4 The

direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).

Properties The properties of refrigerant are (Tables A-11 through A-13)

K

kJ/kg

0.91303

=

kJ/kg

253.81

=

kg

/

m

0.01672

=

vapor

sat.

MPa

2

.

1

MPa

2

.

1

@

1

MPa

2

.

1

@

1

3

MPa

2

.

1

@

1

1

⋅

=

=

=

=

g

g

g

s

s

u

u

P

v

v

Q

R-134a

R-134a

0.1 m3

1.2 MPa

Sat. vapor

1.6 MPa

30°C

K

kJ/kg

0.45315

=

kJ/kg

125.94

=

kg

/

m

0.0009166

=

liquid

sat.

MPa

4

.

1

MPa

4

.

1

@

2

MPa

4

.

1

@

2

3

MPa

4

.

1

@

2

2

⋅

=

=

=

=

f

f

f

s

s

u

u

T

v

v

K

kJ/kg

34554

.

0

kJ/kg

56

.

93

C

30

MPa

6

.

1

⋅

=

=

°

=

=

i

i

i

i

s

h

T

P

Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume. Noting that the microscopic energies

of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpyh and internal energyu, respectively, the

mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be expressed as

Mass balance:

1

2

system

out

in

m

m

m

m

m

m

i

−

=

→

∆

=

−

Energy balance:

)

0

pe

ke

(since

1

1

2

2

in

energies

etc.

potential,

kinetic,

internal,

in

Change

system

mass

and

work,

heat,

by

nsfer

energy tra

Net

out

in

≅

≅

≅

−

=

+

∆

=

−

W

u

m

u

m

h

m

Q

E

E

E

i

i

4

3

42

1

43

42

1

(a) The initial and the final masses in the tank are

kg

109.10

/kg

m

0.0009166

m

0.1

kg

.983

5

/kg

m

0.01672m

0.1

3

3

2

2

2

3

3

1

1

1

=

=

=

=

=

=

v

V

v

V

m

m

Then from the mass balance

kg

103.11

=

−

=

−

=

983

.

5

10

.

109

1

2

m

m

mi

The heat transfer during this process is determined from the energy balance to be

(

)

(

) (

)(

)

kJ

2573

kJ/kg

253.81

kg

5.983

kJ/kg

125.94

)

10

.

109

(

kJ/kg)

56

.

93

(

kg

103.11

1

1

2

2

in

=

−

+

−

=

−

+

−

=

u

m

u

m

h

m

Q

i

i

(b) The exergy destroyed during a process can be determined from an exergy balance or directly from its

definition

. The entropy generationS

gen

0

destroyed

S

T

X

=

gen in this case is determined from an entropy

balance on an extended system that includes the tank and its immediate surroundings so that the boundary

temperature of the extended system is the surroundings temperatureTsurrat all times. It gives

{

0

in

1

1

2

2

gen

tank

1

1

2

2

tank

gen

in

b,

in

entropy

in

Change

system

generation

Entropy

gen

mass

and

heat

by

ansfer

entropy tr

Net

out

in

)

(

=

T

Q

s

m

s

m

s

m

S

s

m

s

m

S

S

s

m

T

Q

S

S

S

S

i

i

i

i

−

−

−

=

−

∆

=

+

+

→

∆

=

+

−

4

3

42

1

4

3

42

1

Substituting, the exergy destruction is determined to be

[

]

kJ

80.3

=

−

×

−

×

−

×

=

−

−

−

=

=

K)

kJ)/(318

2573

(

0.34554

11

.

103

91303

.

0

983

.

5

45315

.

0

109.10

K)

318

(

0

in

1

1

2

2

0

gen

0

destroyed

T

Q

s

m

s

m

s

m

T

S

T

X

i

i

8-61

8-80 A rigid tank initially contains saturated liquid water. A valve at the bottom of the tank is opened, and

half of mass in liquid form is withdrawn from the tank. The temperature in the tank is maintained constant.

The amount of heat transfer, the reversible work, and the exergy destruction during this process are to be

determined.

Assumptions1This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the

process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid leaving the device remains

constant.2 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.3 There are no work interactions involved.4 The

direction of heat transfer is to the tank (will be verified).

H2O

0.6 m3

170°C

T = const.

Q

Properties The properties of water are (Tables A-4 through A-6)

K

kJ/kg

2.0417

kJ/kg

.08

719

liquid

sat.

C

0

17

K

kJ/kg

2.0417

kJ/kg

.20

718

/kg

m

0.001114

liquid

sat.

C

0

17

C

0

17

@

C

0

17

@

C

0

17

@

1

C

0

17

@

1

3

C

0

17

@

1

1

⋅

=

=

=

=

°

=

⋅

=

=

=

=

=

=

°

=

o

o

o

o

o

f

e

f

e

e

f

f

f

s

s

h

h

T

s

s

u

u

T

v

v

me

Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.

Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpyh and

internal energyu, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be

expressed as

Mass balance:

2

1

system

out

in

m

m

m

m

m

m

e

−

=

→

∆

=

−

Energy balance:

)

0

pe

ke

(since

1

1

2

2

in

energies

etc.

potential,

kinetic,

internal,

in

Change

system

mass

and

work,

heat,

by

nsfer

energy tra

Net

out

in

≅

≅

≅

−

+

=

∆

=

−

W

u

m

u

m

h

m

Q

E

E

E

e

e

4

3

42

1

43

42

1

The initial and the final masses in the tank are

(

)

e

m

m

m

m

=

kg

.24

269

kg

538.47

2

1

2

1

kg

.47

538

/kg

m

0.001114

m

0.6

1

2

3

3

1

1

=

=

=

=

=

=v

V

Now we determine the final internal energy and entropy,

(

)(

)

(

)(

)

K

kJ/kg

2.0630

4.6233

0.004614

2.0417

kJ/kg

.77

726

1857.5

0.004614

.20

718

004614

.

0

C

0

17

0.004614

0.001114

0.24260

0.001114

0.002229

/kg

m

0.002229

kg

269.24

m

0.6

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

2

2

⋅

=

+

=

+

=

=

+

=

+

=

=

°

=

=

−

−

=

−

=

=

=

=

fg

f

fg

f

fg

f

s

x

s

s

u

x

u

u

x

T

x

m

v

v

v

V

v

The heat transfer during this process is determined by substituting these values into the energy balance

equation,

(

)(

) (

)(

) (

)(

kJ

2545

=

−

+

=

−

+

=

kJ/kg

718.20

kg

538.47

kJ/kg

726.77

kg

269.24

kJ/kg

719.08

kg

269.24

1

1

2

2

in

u

m

u

m

h

m

Q

e

e

)

8-62

(b) The exergy destroyed during a process can be determined from an exergy balance or directly from its

definition

. The entropy generationS

gen

0

destroyed

S

T

X

=

gen in this case is determined from an entropy

balance on an extended system that includes the tank and the region between the tank and the source so that

the boundary temperature of the extended system at the location of heat transfer is the source temperature

Tsourceat all times. It gives

{

source

in

1

1

2

2

gen

tank

1

1

2

2

tank

gen

in

b,

in

entropy

in

Change

system

generation

Entropy

gen

mass

and

heat

by

ansfer

entropy tr

Net

out

in

)

(

=

S

S

TQ

s

m

s

m

s

m

S

s

m

s

m

S

S

s

m

T

Q

S

S

e

e

e

e

−

+

−

=

−

∆

=

+

−

∆

=

+

−

4

3

42

1

4

3

42

1

Substituting, the exergy destruction is determined to be

[

]

kJ

141.2

=

−

×

×

−

×

=

−

+

−

=

=

K)

kJ)/(523

2545

(

0417

.

2

269.24

+

0417

.

2

47

.

538

0630

.

2

24

.

269

K)

298

(

source

in

1

1

2

2

0

gen

0

destroyed

TQ

s

m

s

m

s

m

T

S

T

X

e

e

For processes that involve no actual work, the reversible work output and exergy destruction are identical.

Therefore,

kJ

141.2

=

=

→

−

=

destroyed

out

rev,

out

act,

out

rev,

destroyed

X

W

W

W

X