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Thermo 5th Chap05 P121

Thermo 5th Chap05 P121

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04/30/2013

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5-77
Charging and Discharging Processes
5-121 A large reservoir supplies steam to a balloon whose initial state is specified. The final temperature in
the balloon and the boundary work are to be determined.
Analysis Noting that the volume changes linearly with the pressure, the final volume and the initial mass
are determined from
(Table A-6)
/kg
m
9367
.
1
C
150
kPa
100
3
1
1
1
=
°
=
=
v
T
P
Steam
50 m3
100 kPa
150°C
Steam
150 kPa
200°C
3
3
1
1
2
2
m
75
)
m
50
(
kPa
100
kPa
150
=
=
=
V
V
P
P
kg
82
.
25
/kg
m
1.9367m
50
3
3
1
1
1
=
=
=v
V
m
The final temperature may be determined if we first calculate specific
volume at the final state
/kg
m
4525
.
1
kg)
25.82
(
2
m
75
2
3
3
1
2
2
2
2
=
×
=
=
=
m
m
V
V
v
(Table A-6)
C
202.5°
=
=
=
2
3
2
2
/kg
m
4525
.
1
kPa
150
T
P
v
Noting again that the volume changes linearly with the pressure, the boundary work can be determined
from
kJ
3125
=
+
=
+
=
3
1
2
2
1
m
)
50
75
(
2
kPa
)
150
100
(
)
(
2
V
V
P
P
Wb
5-122 Steam in a supply line is allowed to enter an initially evacuated tank. The temperature of the steam in
the supply line and the flow work are to be determined.
Analysis Flow work of the steam in the supply line is converted to sensible internal energy in the tank.
That is,
4 MPa
Initially
evacuated
Steam
tank
line
u
h
=
where
(Table A-6)
kJ/kg
5
.
3189
C
550
MPa
4
tank
tank
tank
=
°
=
=
u
T
P
Now, the properties of steam in the line can be calculated
(Table A-6)
kJ/kg
5
.
2901
kJ/kg
5
.
3189
MPa
4
line
line
line
line
=
°
=
=
=
u
T
h
P
C
389.5
The flow work per unit mass is the difference between enthalpy and internal energy of the steam in the line
kJ/kg
288
=
=
=
5
.
2901
5
.
3189
line
line
flow
u
h
w
5-78
5-123 A vertical piston-cylinder device contains air at a specified state. Air is allowed to escape from the
cylinder by a valve connected to the cylinder. The final temperature and the boundary work are to be
determined.
Properties The gas constant of air isR = 0.287 kJ/kg.K (Table A-1).
Air
Air
0.25 m3
600 kPa
300°C
Analysis The initial and final masses in the cylinder are
3
3
1
1
1
m
9121
.
0
K)
273
00
kJ/kg.K)(3
287
.
0
(
)
m
kPa)(0.25
600
(
=
+
=
=RT
P
m
V
kg
2280
.
0
kg)
9121
.
0
(
25
.
0
25
.
0
1
2
=
=
=
m
m
Then the final temperature becomes
K
458.4
=
=
=
kJ/kg.K)
287
.
0
(
kg)
2280
.
0
(
)
m
kPa)(0.05
600
(
3
2
2
2
R
m
P
T
V
Noting that pressure remains constant during the process, the boundary work is determined from
kJ
120
=
=
=
3
2
1
0.05)m
kPa)(0.25
(600
)
(
V
V
P
Wb
5-124 Helium flows from a supply line to an initially evacuated tank. The flow work of the helium in the
supply line and the final temperature of the helium in the tank are to be determined.
Properties The properties of helium areR = 2.0769 kJ/kg.K,cp = 5.1926 kJ/kg.K,cv = 3.1156 kJ/kg.K
(Table A-2a).
Analysis The flow work is determined from its definition but
we first determine the specific volume
200 kPa, 120°C
Initially
evacuated
Helium
/kg
m
0811
.
4
kPa)
200
(
K)
273
20
kJ/kg.K)(1
0769
.
2
(
3
line
=
+
=
=P
RT
v
kJ/kg
816.2
=
=
=
/kg)
m
1
kPa)(4.081
200
(
3
flow
v
P
w
Noting that the flow work in the supply line is converted to
sensible internal energy in the tank, the final helium
temperature in the tank is determined as follows
K
655.0
=
→
=
→
=
=
+
=
=
=
tank
tank
tank
tank
-
line
line
line
tank
kJ/kg.K)
1156
.
3
(
kJ/kg
7
.
2040
kJ/kg
7
.
2040
K)
273
20
kJ/kg.K)(1
1926
.
5
(
T
T
T
c
u
T
c
h
h
u
pv
Alternative Solution: Noting the definition of specific heat ratio, the final temperature in the tank can also
be determined from
K
655.1
=
+
=
=
K)
273
120
(
667
.
1
line
tank
kT
T
which is practically the same result.
5-79
5-125 An evacuated bottle is surrounded by atmospheric air. A valve is opened, and air is allowed to fill
the bottle. The amount of heat transfer through the wall of the bottle when thermal and mechanical
equilibrium is established is to be determined.
Assumptions1This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant.2 Air is an ideal gas with variable specific heats.3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.4
There are no work interactions involved.5 The direction of heat transfer is to the air in the bottle (will be
verified).
Properties The gas constant of air is 0.287 kPa.m3/kg.K (Table A-1).
Analysis We take the bottle as the system, which is a control volume since mass crosses the boundary.
Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpyh and
internal energyu, respectively, the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be
expressed as
Mass balance:
)
0
(since
initial
out
2
system
out
in
=
=
=
=
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
i
Energy balance:
)
0
(since
initial
out
2
2
in
energies
etc.
potential,
kinetic,
internal,
in
Change
system
mass
and
work,
heat,
by
nsfer
energy tra
Net
out
in
=
=
=
+
=
pe
ke
E
E
W
u
m
h
m
Q
E
E
E
i
i
4
3
42
1
4
3
42
1
100 kPa
17°C
8 L
Evacuated
Combining the two balances:
Q
(
)
i
h
u
m
=
2
2
in
where
kJ/kg
206.91
kJ/kg
290.16
K
290
kg
0.0096
)
K
290
)(
K
/kg
m
kPa
0.287
(
)
m
0.008
)(
kPa
100
(
2
17
-
A
Table
2
3
3
2
2
2
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
u
h
T
T
RT
P
m
i
i
V
Substituting,
Qin = (0.0096 kg)(206.91 - 290.16) kJ/kg = - 0.8 kJ
Qout=0.8 kJ
Discussion The negative sign for heat transfer indicates that the assumed direction is wrong. Therefore, we
reverse the direction.
5-126 An insulated rigid tank is evacuated. A valve is opened, and air is allowed to fill the tank until
mechanical equilibrium is established. The final temperature in the tank is to be determined.
Assumptions1This is an unsteady process since the conditions within the device are changing during the
process, but it can be analyzed as a uniform-flow process since the state of fluid at the inlet remains
constant.2 Air is an ideal gas with constant specific heats.3 Kinetic and potential energies are negligible.4
There are no work interactions involved.5 The device is adiabatic and thus heat transfer is negligible.
Properties The specific heat ratio for air at room temperature isk = 1.4 (Table A-2).
Analysis We take the tank as the system, which is a control volume since mass
crosses the boundary. Noting that the microscopic energies of flowing and
nonflowing fluids are represented by enthalpyh and internal energyu, respectively,
the mass and energy balances for this uniform-flow system can be expressed as
Mass balance:
)
0
(since
initial
out
2
system
out
in
=
=
=
=
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
i
Energy balance:
)
0
(since
initial
out
2
2
energies
etc.
potential,
kinetic,
internal,
in
Change
system
mass
and
work,
heat,
by
nsfer
energy tra
Net
out
in
=
=
=
=
pe
ke
E
E
W
Q
u
m
h
m
E
E
E
i
i
4
3
42
1
4
3
42
1
Air
initially
evacuated
Combining the two balances:
i
i
p
i
p
i
kT
T
c
c
T
T
c
T
c
h
u
=
=
=
=
)
/
(
2
2
2
v
v
Substituting,
T2= ×
=
=
1.4 290 K 406 K133 C
o