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Published by: Chris Nash on Jul 26, 2008
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Other Approaches to Civil-Military Integration: The Chinese and Japanese Arms Industries
March 1995
OTA-BP-ISS-143GPO stock #052-003-01408-4
Recommended Citation:
U.S. Congress,Office of Technology Assessment,
 Approaches to Civil-Military Integration:
The Chinese and Japanese Arms Industries, BP-ISS-143
(Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, March 1995).
s part of its assessment of the potential for integrating the civil andmilitary industrial bases, the Office of Technology Assessment con-sidered how the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Japan, twoAsian states with sizable defense industries, have succeeded in
achieving significant levels of civil-military integration (CMI).
CMI involves the sharing of fixed costs by promoting the use of common
technologies, processes, labor, equipment, material, and/or facilities. CMI cannot only lower costs, but in some cases, it can also expedite the introduction of advanced commercial products and processes to the defense sector.
The paper is divided into two sections, one on the PRC and one on Japan.
Each section describes the structure and management of the respective defense
industrial base and then compares it with its U.S. counterpart. The paper thenassesses the degree to which lessons from the PRC and Japanese cases can be
applied to the U.S. defense technology and industrial base (DTIB).Although the political and security situations of the PRC and Japan, as wellas their CMI objectives, differ from those of the United States, several interest-
ing observations can be made. The Japanese, for example, with a limited de-
fense market and an American security guarantee, emphasize dual-use design
as well as the commercial aspects of many defense developments. Dual-use
design and high quality are enhanced in some instances by Japanese personnelpolicies that combine design and manufacturing personnel into product groupsthat understand the entire design, development, and manufacturing process.The PRC’s experience appears to have less application to the United States
because its defense technology is far less sophisticated and large segments of 
the Chinese economy, and almost all of the Chinese DTIB, remain under statecontrol. Still, the PRC’s CMI effort is of interest in its potential impact on eco-nomic modernization of the PRC and the potential for technology transfer intothe future PRC defense structure.This report responds to a request from the House Armed Services Commit-
tee to investigate the potential for deriving lessons from foreign states to fur-
ther American efforts at increasing integration in the American DTIB. As withall OTA studies, the content of this background paper is solely the responsibil-ity of the Office of Technology Assessment.

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