remnant of the first dynasty of Caliphs found shelter and renewed greatness after being supplanted in Baghdad by their conquerors the Abbasids. The two centurieswhich followed the inauguration of the Western Caliphate witnessed the rise of a brilliant civilization and culture which have left an ineradicable impress on the peninsula, embodied in so many fine Moorish buildings; the Cathedral Mosque of Cordova, founded in 786, mentioned several times in the pages of this book, wasconverted into a Christian cathedral by Ferdinand III in 1236, but its familiar name "La Mesquita " still recalls the purpose for which it was originally erected. It wasduring Ibn Hazm's own lifetime that the Umaiyad Caliphate was finally extinguished.Abu Muhammad `Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Sa'id Ibn' Hazm, to give our author hisfull name-for the Arabs call a man first after his son, secondly by his own name, andthirdly after his father and his ancestors-belonged to a notable family converted fromChristianity several generations before. His father was a high official in the service of al-Mansur, regent of Hisham II, and of his son al-Muzaffar; al-Mansur and al-Muzaffar were members of the Banu 'Amir who had succeeded in arrogating tothemselves all the power and privileges of the Caliphate but its name. Being the sonof such a man, to whom he always refers as " the late vizier ", Ibn Hazm enjoyed ahappy though secluded childhood, and the advantages of an excellent education; hetells us that most of his early teachers were women. The fall of the Banu 'Amir ledsoon after to the dismissal and house-arrest of their faithful minister, who died four years later on 22 June 1012. The Umaiyads were now near their end; Andalusia wasin a state of anarchy; in 1013 the Berber insurgents seized and sacked Cordova, andon 13 July of that year Ibn Hazm fled from the city of his birth and set out uponextensive wanderings, of which he gives us fascinating glimpses in the pages of this book. In 1 o 16 `Ali Ibn Hammud proclaimed himself Caliph, but did not long survivehis usurpation of power. The next fourteen years were chaotic in the extreme, asUmaiyad and Hammudid pretenders struggled for possession of the precarious throne.In 1030 the citizens of Cordova, weary of so much disorder, declared the Caliphate to be at an end and set up in its place a sort of republic; but the authority of Cordova hadmeanwhile dwindled away, and Andalusia was split between numerous independent principalities. The way was being prepared for the Reconquista. The fall of Granadain 1492 drove the Moslems from their last foothold in the Iberian Peninsula.Ibn Hazm's first refuge after his flight from Cordova was Almeria, where he livedquietly and in comparative security for a time. But in 1016 Khairan, the governor of that city, having made common cause with `Ali Ibn Hammud against the UmaiyadSulaiman, accused Ibn Hazm of harbouring Umaiyad sympathies, and after imprisoning him for some months banished him from his province. Our author made a brief stay at Aznalcazar, and then betook himself to Valencia, where `Abd al-RahmanIV al-Murtada the Umaiyad had just announced his succession to the Caliphate. Heserved al-Murtada as vizier and marched with his army to Granada; but the cause hesupported was not successful, and he was captured and thrown into prison. However his release was not long delayed; and in February 1019 he returned to Cordova, after an absence of six years, to find al-Qasim Ibn Hammud in power. In December 1023the Umaiyads again seized the Caliphate, and Ibn Hazm became vizier to 'Abd al-Rahman V al-Mustazhir. He had only seven weeks' enjoyment of this turn of fortune,for al-Mustazhir was assassinated and he himself was once again in jail. History doesnot record how long his new incarceration lasted; we only know that in 1027 he wasin Jativa, where he composed the present book. He appears to have kept clear of politics for the rest of his days, which ended on 15 August 1064; but he by no meanskept clear of trouble, for his religious views were in conflict with the prevalentorthodoxy and his writings were publicly burnt in Seville during his lifetime.
The Ring of the Dove
was Ibn Hazm's only experiment in the field of elegant