Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
4Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Reliable and Energy Aware QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Reliable and Energy Aware QoS Routing Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Ratings: (0)|Views: 346 |Likes:
Published by ijcsis
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), always there is a tradeoff between reliability and energy consumption because in order to achieve maximum reliability, the maximum energy has to be consumed. But most of the existing works either concentrate on energy consumption or reliability, but very rarely both are taken into consideration. In this paper, we propose to develop a reliable and energy aware Quality of Service (QoS) Routing Protocol for MANETs to provide a combined solution for both energy consumption and reliability. In this protocol, multiple disjoint paths are determined for a source and destination and the routes are selected based on Route availability (RA) which is estimated from link availability (LA) and total energy consumed (TE) during the transmission of packets. By simulation results we show that the proposed protocol achieves better packet delivery ratio with reduced energy consumption and delay.
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), always there is a tradeoff between reliability and energy consumption because in order to achieve maximum reliability, the maximum energy has to be consumed. But most of the existing works either concentrate on energy consumption or reliability, but very rarely both are taken into consideration. In this paper, we propose to develop a reliable and energy aware Quality of Service (QoS) Routing Protocol for MANETs to provide a combined solution for both energy consumption and reliability. In this protocol, multiple disjoint paths are determined for a source and destination and the routes are selected based on Route availability (RA) which is estimated from link availability (LA) and total energy consumed (TE) during the transmission of packets. By simulation results we show that the proposed protocol achieves better packet delivery ratio with reduced energy consumption and delay.

More info:

Published by: ijcsis on Nov 05, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

09/21/2011

pdf

text

original

 
Reliable and Energy Aware QoS Routing Protocol forMobile Ad hoc Networks
 
V.Thilagavathe
Lecturer, Department of Master of Computer Applications,Institute of Road & Transport Technology
K.Duraiswamy
DeanK.S. Rangasamy College of Technology,Tiruchengode.
 
 Abstract—
In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), always there isa tradeoff between reliability and energy consumption because inorder to achieve maximum reliability, the maximum energy hasto be consumed. But most of the existing works either concentrateon energy consumption or reliability, but very rarely both aretaken into consideration. In this paper, we propose to develop areliable and energy aware Quality of Service (QoS) RoutingProtocol for MANETs to provide a combined solution for bothenergy consumption and reliability. In this protocol, multipledisjoint paths are determined for a source and destination andthe routes are selected based on Route availability (RA) which isestimated from link availability (LA) and total energy consumed(TE) during the transmission of packets. By simulation results weshow that the proposed protocol achieves better packet deliveryratio with reduced energy consumption and delay.
 Keywords-Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs); Quality of Service (QoS); Link availability (LA); ROUTE ERROR (RERR); ROUTE REQUEST (RREQ).
 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 
 A. Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET)
A Mobile Ad-Hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configuringnetwork of mobile nodes connected by wireless links, to forman arbitrary topology. The nodes are free to move arbitrarily.Thus, the network's wireless topology may be random and maychange quickly. Such a network may operate in a standalonefashion, or may be linked to the larger Internet. An ad Hocnetwork is formed by sensor networks consisting of sensing,data processing, and communication components. Due to itsdeficiency in infrastructure support, each node acts as a router,forwarding data packets for other nodes [1]. Its application areaincludes Tactical Networks, Emergency Services, CommercialEnvironments Educational Applications and Entertainment [2].
 B. Routing In MANET 
 Routing
is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed formany kinds of networks, including the telephone network (Circuit switching), electronic data networks (such as theInternet), and transportation networks
 
 
Nodes in traditional wired networks do not routepackets, while in MANET every node is a router.
 
Nodes transmit and receive their own packets and alsoforward packets for other nodes.
 
Due to mobile nodes, topologies are dynamic inMANET, but are relatively static in traditionalnetworks.
 
Connectivity and interference are indicated by link layer information.
 
 
A traditional router has an interface for each network to which it connects, while a MANET “router” has asingle interface.
 
Routed packet sent forward during transmission alsogets transmitted to the previous transmitter.
 
MANETs may have gateways to fixed network, butare normally “stub networks”.
C. QoS Routing
 
QoS refers to the ability of a network to provide betterservice to selected network traffic over various technologies,including Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM),Ethernet and 802.1 networks, SONET, and IP-routed networksthat may use any or all of these basic technologies Dedicatedbandwidth, controlled jitter and latency (required by somereal-time and interactive traffic), and improved losscharacteristics are primary objective of QoS [4].It is necessary to implement state-dependent, QoS-awarenetworking protocols, to enable QoS routing. A link weightexpresses the available resources on a link. Though simple andreliable, flooding involves unnecessary communications andcauses incompetent use of resources, particularly in theperspective of QoS routing that needs frequent distribution of multiple, dynamic parameters. Since all changes are not soimportant, monitoring changes via internet are not possibleand desirable. Two possible changes are considered:(1) Rare changes due to joining/leaving of nodes. In thecurrent Internet, only this kind of topology changes isconsidered. Its dynamics are relatively well understood.(2) Frequent changes, which are typically related to theconsumption of resources or to the traffic flowing through thenetwork [5].
1) Challenges of QoS Routing in Ad Hoc Networks:
 
Dynamic varying network topology
 
Imprecise state information
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010272http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Scarcity of resources
 
Absence of communication infrastructure
 
Lack of centralized control
 
Power limitations
 
Heterogeneous nodes and networks
 
Error-prone shared radio channel
 
Hidden terminal problem
 
Insecure medium
 
Other layers
2) Issues of QoS routing in MANET:
 
 
To define accurately what QoS means in ad-hocnetworks, is one of the basic issue. In wired networks,QoS usually means that the network guaranteessomething like a minimum bandwidth or maximumdelay to a flow. In contrast, it is not possible toguarantee with certainty the bandwidth or delay toflows in an ad-hoc network when nodes are mobileand the links break and re-join in an unpredictableway. However, it is possible for the network to do thebest it can to protect flows in predictablecircumstances.
 
Some Open Issues
 
QoS metric selection and cost functiondesign
 
Multi-class traffic
 
Scheduling mechanism at source
 
Packet prioritization for control messages
 
QoS routing that allows preemption
 
Integration/coordination with MAC layer
 
Heterogeneous networks[8]
 
QoS in ad-hoc network requires appropriate co-operation between various layers of the ad-hocprotocols, and it’s difficult to achieve. Moreover, thereis a wide range of applications and network conditions– implying that a single solution is doubtful to satisfythese varied requirements.
 
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET [1~2]) arecharacterized by high mobility and frequent link failures that ends in low throughput and high end-to-end delay. The function of a QoS routing strategy is tocompute paths that are appropriate for different type of traffic generated by various applications whilemaximizing the utilizations of network resources. Butthe difficulty of finding multi-constrained paths hashigh computational complexity, and thus there is aneed to use algorithms that resolve this difficulty [11].
 
It is not only sufficient to find a route from a source toone or multiple destinations for QoS routing, also ithas to satisfy one or more QoS constraints, typically,but not restricted to, bandwidth or delay [12].
 
Homogeneous nodes in MANETs are assumed byexisting routing protocols. i.e., all nodes have thesame communication capabilities and characteristics.However, in many ad hoc networks, nodes are not thesame. Some nodes have longer transmission range,larger transmission bandwidth, and are more reliableand robust than other nodes.
 
Due to the nature constraints of MANETs, such asdynamic network topology, wireless communicationlink and limited process capability of nodes, it isdifficult to find reasonable QoS routes in MANETs[13].
 
Fast changing of topology and the lack of globalinformation, are major challenges of a MANET. AnMANET has only its adjacent information due to itstransmission capability, such as transmission range,battery power, and so on. These result in complexityfor developing an efficient routing protocol forMANETs [14].
 D. Problem Identification and Proposed Solution
 
Always there is a tradeoff between reliability and energyconsumptions because when reliability is maximum energyconsumption also rises to maximum. Most of the existingworks either concentrate on energy consumption or reliability,but both are not taken into consideration. For example, theerror-aware feature of ECSRP [20] helps to reduce the energyconsumption due to the retransmission of packets, but doesn’tprovide any solution for reliability. Prediction based link availability estimation [21] provides solution for reliability. Ittries to predict the probability that an active link between twonodes will be continuously available for a predicted period,which is obtained based on the current node’s movement, andthis doesn’t concentrate on energy consumption. Hence wehave to design an algorithm in such a way that it need toprovide a combined solution for both energy consumption andreliability.In this paper, we develop a reliable and energy aware QoSRouting (REQR) Protocol for MANETs. The solution can beobtained by providing trade off between link availability andgiven threshold values.In this protocol, the routes are selected based on Routeavailability (RA) which is estimated from link availability(LA) and total energy consumed (TE) during the transmissionof packets. It will first select the routes satisfying the condition1
Th RA
>
, where 1
Th
is the minimum threshold value forroute stability. Among the selected routes, again it will choosethe routes satisfying the condition2
ThTE 
<
, where2
Th
isthe minimum threshold value for total energy consumed.If both the conditions are satisfied, then selected route isappropriate, and from this it’s clear that selected route willhave maximum link availability and minimum energyconsumption. The Link availability is estimated based on therelative mobility of the nodes and the received signal strength.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010273http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
II.
 
R
ELATED
W
ORKS
 Chunxue Wu et al [11] have proposed a novel QoSMultipath Path Routing Mobile in MANET. Routingalgorithm called Ad hoc on-demand Multipath routing wasintroduced, that provides quality of service (QoS) support, (Q-AOMDV) in terms of bandwidth, hop count and end-to-enddelay in mobile ad hoc networks. The consequences validatethat Q-AOMDV provides QoS support in mobile ad hocwireless networks with high reliability and low overhead”.Mamoun Hussein Mamoun [16] have proposed, novelalgorithm to routing called NRA, in mobile ad hoc networks,that allows the network layer to adjust its routing protocoldynamically based on SNR along the end-to-end routing pathfor each transmission link.B. Sun et al [17] have proposed, Fuzzy Controller BasedQoS Routing Algorithm with a Multiclass Scheme forMANETs. They presented a fuzzy controller based QoSrouting algorithm with a multiclass scheme (FQRA) in mobilead hoc networks. Comparison with "crisp" versions of thefuzzy algorithm to isolate the contributions of fuzzy logic,including applications of fuzzy control to power consumptionand directional antennas in MANETs, are included in futureworks. They have also planned to compare FQRA with otherQoS routing algorithm.Fujian Qin et al [18] have proposed
 Multipath
Based QoSRouting in MANET. A multipath source routing protocol withbandwidth and reliability guarantee is proposed. The protocolselects several multiple alternate paths which meet the QoSrequirements, in route discovery phase, and to compromisebetween load balancing and network overhead, the idealnumber of multipath routing is achieved. It can effectivelydeal with route failures similar to DSR, in route maintenancephase.Md.Mamun-Or-Rashid et al [19] have proposed Link Stability and Lifetime Prediction Based QoS Aware Routingfor MANETs. QoS aware routing problem is been formulatedto maximize the link stability and lifetime whereas tominimize the cost. Their algorithm selects the best path interms of link stability and lower cost lifetime prediction tominimize blocking probability along with QoS support. LSLPcan reduce blocking probability up to 20% than that of otheralgorithms. LSLP decreases network life time a little than thatof CLPR at the cost of better network performance andthroughput as it will reduce packet loss due to network disconnection. Their proposed method formulates a tradeoff between link stability and cost which will guarantee adisruption free communication for transmission.III.
 
R
ELIABLE AND
E
NERGY
A
WARE
Q
O
S
 
R
OUTING
P
ROTOCOL
 
 A. Overview
 
Link availability, provides the basis for path selectionbased on the probability the path will remain available over aspecified interval of time. It is a probabilistic model whichpredicts the future status of a wireless link. The reliability of apath depends on the availability of all links constituting thispath [7]. A prediction based link availability estimation is usedwhich lets a node to first predict a continuous time period thata currently available link will last from initial time, byassuming that both nodes of the link will keep their currentmovements (i.e., speed and direction) unchanged [21].To prolong the lifetime of MANETs, the energyconsumption must be limited. In wireless channels, thechannel condition also affects the power consumption [20].Hence, in
 
our protocol, we have taken both link availability and energy consumption as QoS parameters inroute discovery.The random ad-hoc mobility model is a continuous-timestochastic process that characterizes the movement of nodes ina two-dimensional space. Based on the mobility model, eachnode’s movement consists of a sequence of random lengthintervals called
mobility epochs
,
 
during which a node moves ina constant direction at a constant speed [7]. In our protocol,the following assumptions are made for the epoch length.1. Mobility epoch lengths are exponentially distributedwith mean
1
λ 
., i.e.
 
}{)(
 x RLV P x E 
=
 
 xe
λ 
=
1 (1)
 
Node mobility is uncorrelated.Where,
λ 
= epoch length,
 RLV 
=Random length interval=
λ 
 
P
= probability for the two nodes to move close to each otherafter changing their movements.
 B. Estimation of QoS Metrics
 
Based on above assumptions, the availability of link isdefined as,},{)(
00
 A
P AP L
+=
(2)it indicates the probability that the link will becontinuously available from time
0
to }
0
P
+
.Where,
P
= continuous time period.So, the expression for link availability is derived as:Pr21)(
Pr2min
λ 
λ 
=
eP L
+2Pr
Pr2
λ 
λ 
e
(3)Where,
e
Pr2
λ 
is the probability that nodes keep theirmovements same.The basic assumption of Energy Efficient Routing Protocolin MANETs
 
includes transmission energy model usingShadowing.
 
Transmission energy per scale can be expressed as,
P
=
λ 
(4)
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010274http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

Activity (4)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Akram Bentaleb liked this
Nasir Mahmood liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->