Scarcity of resources
Absence of communication infrastructure
Lack of centralized control
Heterogeneous nodes and networks
Error-prone shared radio channel
Hidden terminal problem
2) Issues of QoS routing in MANET:
To define accurately what QoS means in ad-hocnetworks, is one of the basic issue. In wired networks,QoS usually means that the network guaranteessomething like a minimum bandwidth or maximumdelay to a flow. In contrast, it is not possible toguarantee with certainty the bandwidth or delay toflows in an ad-hoc network when nodes are mobileand the links break and re-join in an unpredictableway. However, it is possible for the network to do thebest it can to protect flows in predictablecircumstances.
Some Open Issues
QoS metric selection and cost functiondesign
Scheduling mechanism at source
Packet prioritization for control messages
QoS routing that allows preemption
Integration/coordination with MAC layer
QoS in ad-hoc network requires appropriate co-operation between various layers of the ad-hocprotocols, and it’s difficult to achieve. Moreover, thereis a wide range of applications and network conditions– implying that a single solution is doubtful to satisfythese varied requirements.
Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET [1~2]) arecharacterized by high mobility and frequent link failures that ends in low throughput and high end-to-end delay. The function of a QoS routing strategy is tocompute paths that are appropriate for different type of traffic generated by various applications whilemaximizing the utilizations of network resources. Butthe difficulty of finding multi-constrained paths hashigh computational complexity, and thus there is aneed to use algorithms that resolve this difficulty .
It is not only sufficient to find a route from a source toone or multiple destinations for QoS routing, also ithas to satisfy one or more QoS constraints, typically,but not restricted to, bandwidth or delay .
Homogeneous nodes in MANETs are assumed byexisting routing protocols. i.e., all nodes have thesame communication capabilities and characteristics.However, in many ad hoc networks, nodes are not thesame. Some nodes have longer transmission range,larger transmission bandwidth, and are more reliableand robust than other nodes.
Due to the nature constraints of MANETs, such asdynamic network topology, wireless communicationlink and limited process capability of nodes, it isdifficult to find reasonable QoS routes in MANETs.
Fast changing of topology and the lack of globalinformation, are major challenges of a MANET. AnMANET has only its adjacent information due to itstransmission capability, such as transmission range,battery power, and so on. These result in complexityfor developing an efficient routing protocol forMANETs .
D. Problem Identification and Proposed Solution
Always there is a tradeoff between reliability and energyconsumptions because when reliability is maximum energyconsumption also rises to maximum. Most of the existingworks either concentrate on energy consumption or reliability,but both are not taken into consideration. For example, theerror-aware feature of ECSRP  helps to reduce the energyconsumption due to the retransmission of packets, but doesn’tprovide any solution for reliability. Prediction based link availability estimation  provides solution for reliability. Ittries to predict the probability that an active link between twonodes will be continuously available for a predicted period,which is obtained based on the current node’s movement, andthis doesn’t concentrate on energy consumption. Hence wehave to design an algorithm in such a way that it need toprovide a combined solution for both energy consumption andreliability.In this paper, we develop a reliable and energy aware QoSRouting (REQR) Protocol for MANETs. The solution can beobtained by providing trade off between link availability andgiven threshold values.In this protocol, the routes are selected based on Routeavailability (RA) which is estimated from link availability(LA) and total energy consumed (TE) during the transmissionof packets. It will first select the routes satisfying the condition1
, where 1
is the minimum threshold value forroute stability. Among the selected routes, again it will choosethe routes satisfying the condition2
isthe minimum threshold value for total energy consumed.If both the conditions are satisfied, then selected route isappropriate, and from this it’s clear that selected route willhave maximum link availability and minimum energyconsumption. The Link availability is estimated based on therelative mobility of the nodes and the received signal strength.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 7, October 2010273http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500