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Human Resource Managment-Introduction

Human Resource Managment-Introduction

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Published by: momra on Nov 05, 2010
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12/18/2012

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCEMANAGEMENT 
Objectives:
After studying this chapter, you would be able to:1)
Know
the basic concepts of human resource management(HRM)2)Be
acquainted
with the major human resourcemanagement functions.3)
Understand
personnel issues under different schools of thoughts4)
Analyze
the context (the environment) within whichhuman resource management functions.
INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTWhat is human resource management?
Before giving an answer to this question, it would be better to define"
management 
" it self. The reason to this is that human resourcemanagement belongs to the broader field of study and practice knownas management.
Management
can be defined as the process of reachingorganizational goals by working with and through people and otherresources. Management in all areas of life implies achieving goals witheffective and efficient use of organizational resources.Organizational resources can be grouped into four major categories:
• 
Human resources
• 
Financial resources
• 
Physical resources
• 
Information resources
Human resources are among the fundamental resources available toany organization. Emphasizing the importance of human resources,
1
 
some prominent writers define management as the process of gettingthings done with and through other people.Human resource management (HRM) is thus a part of the field of management. HRM, can be defined as the utilization of humanresources to achieve organizational objectives. It can broadly be seenas that function of all organizations which provides for
effectiveutilization of human resources
to achieve both the objectives of theorganization on one hand and the satisfaction and development of employees on the other hand (Glueck, 1992).In defining and studying human resources management some pointsneed to be emphasized:
• 
Human resources management is concerned with the peopledimension of the organizational management.
• 
Human resource management is a pervasive activity, meaninga universal activity in any type of organization : government,business, education, health, defense, recreation, etc.
• 
The human resource is said to be the most important ( or critical) element in an organization since people make thedecisions concerning all other organizational resources.Therefore, getting and keeping good people is critical to thesuccess of every organization, whether profit or non-profit, public or private.
In an organization, managers at all levels must concern themselveswith human resource management at least to some extent. Basically,it has been said, managers get
things done through the efforts of others
, which basically requires effective human resourcemanagement (Monday & Noe, 1990).A human resource manager is an individual who normally acts in anadvisory, or "staff", capacity, working with other managers to helpthem deal with human resource matters. The human resourcemanager is primarily responsible for coordinating the management of human resources to help the organization achieve its goals.Some writers in the field and other management people may use suchnames as "personnel", "personnel management", "manpowermanagement", and "employee relations" to say the same thing: humanresource management.
Major Human Resource Management Functions
Human resource management functions
are the set of activities
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performed in utilizing human resources for better achievement of organizational objectives. Following are the major elements (Mondy &Noe, 1990):
1.Human Resource Planning
Human resource planning
(HRP) is the process of systematicallyreviewing human resource requirements to ensure that therequired numbers of employees, with the required skills, areavailable when they are needed. HRP is the process of matchingthe internal and external supply of people with job openingsanticipated in the organization over a specified period of time.
2.Recruitment 
Recruitment 
is the process of attracting individuals in sufficientnumbers and encouraging them to apply for jobs with theorganization. It is the process of identifying and attracting a poolof candidates, from which some will later be selected to receiveemployment offers.
3.Selection
Selection
is the process of choosing from a group of applicantsthe individuals best suited for a particular position. Whereasrecruitment encourages individuals to seek employment with afirm, the purpose of the selection process is to identify andemploy the best qualified individuals for specific positions.
 4.Orientation
Orientation
is the formal process of familiarizing new employeeswith the organization, their job, and their work unit. Throughorientation (also called socialization or induction) new employeeswill acquire the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that make themsuccessful members of the organization.
5.Training and Development 
 Training and development aim to increase employee's ability tocontribute to organizational effectiveness.
Training
is a processdesigned to maintain or improve performance (and skills) in thepresent job.
Development 
is a programme designed to developskills necessary for future work activities. It is designed toprepare employees for promotion.
6.Compensation Administration
Compensation administration
refers to the administration of every type of reward that individuals receive in return for theirservices. In its boarder sense, compensation represents all sortsof rewards that individuals receive as a result of theiremployment.
3

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