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(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security,Vol. 2, No. 10, 2010
183
Node Realization: Proposed techniques of randomwalk, statistical and clustering
Abstract:
The paper deals with positional node detection on the basis of random walk motion. The concept of curve fitting has been applied for random walk observation in n-dimension. The paper also points out the research issues of node inspectionusing statistical approaches. Nodal communication strategies in cluster based network structures have also been studied. The related graphical representation has been cited with proper justification.
Keyword:
Node, Random walk, curve fitting, statisticalapproaches, cluster
1. Introduction
The random walk model concept dates back to the irregularmotion of individual pollen grains experimented by RobertBrown (1828), [1],[2],[3] and now it is called BrownianMotion. Brownian Motion in two dimensionsBrownian motion, in some systems can also be described asnoise, and is a continuous motion of small particles. Thestriking features of this concept are:
 
The motion is very irregular, composed of translations and rotations, and the trajectory of themotion appears to have no tangent.
 
Two particles appear to move independently, evenwhen they approach one another, within a distanceless than their diameter.
 
The smaller is the particle; the more active is themotion.
 
The composition and density of the particles have noeffect.
 
The less viscous is the fluid; the more active is themotion.
 
The higher is the temperature; the more active is themotion.
 
The motion never ceases.In a simple random walk model for node moving in amobile adhoc network, the following assumptions areconsidered -
 
There is a starting point.
 
The distance from one point in the path to the nextis constant
 
The direction from one point in the path to the nextis chosen at random, and no direction is moreprobable than another.Consider a node moving on an infinite, one dimensionaluniform line .Let the node start its journey at the origin (x=0) and then it moves a small distance
δ
 
either left or rightin a short time
τ
 
. The motion is completely random and theprobabilities of moving both left and right is 1/2 .The can beeither at left or right of the origin and the distance is asassumed earlier i.e.
δ
. The next time step the node will be ata position
2
δ
 
to the left or right of the origin withprobability of 1/4 each or even the node can return to itsoriginal position.On assuming the above behavior of thenode, the probability that the node will be at a distance
m
δ
tothe right direction of the origin or to the left direction of theorigin after taking n time steps and can be represented as abinomial distribution with mean 0 and variance n. Themean location for one dimension is zero and the meansquared displacement is equal to
2Dt
.Therefore we concludethat when direction bias is missing,there is no overallmovement in any direction. The graphical representationsof Random Walk Motion in n-dimension[4]i.e. for 1D, 2Dand 3D have been shown in figures 1, 2, 3.
Figure 1.
Random Walk Motion in 1D
A.Kumar
1
, P.Chakrabarti
2
and P.Saini
3
 
1
Dept. of Comp. Sci. & Engg., Sir Padampat Singhania University,
 
Udaipur-313601,Rajasthan, India
 
1
arunkumarsai@gmail.com
 
2
Dept. of Comp. Sci. & Engg., Sir Padampat Singhania University,
 
Udaipur-313601,Rajasthan, India
 
2
prasun9999@rediffmail.com
 
3
Dept. of Comp. Sci. & Engg., Sir Padampat Singhania University,
 
Udaipur-313601,Rajasthan, India
 
3
poonam.saini9@gmail.com
 
 
(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security,Vol. 2, No. 10, 2010
184 
Figure 2.
Random Walk Motion in 2D
Figure 3.
Random Walk Motion in 3D
2. Proposed Node Realization using CurveFitting
Since mobile nodes are spread throughout the network, andevery node will have an independent coordinate position, amathematical procedure for finding the best fitting curve toa given set of points is by minimizing the sum of the squaresof the offset points from the curve. We need to derive anapproximate function that fits the data.It is to use the curve that minimizes the discrepancy betweenthe data points and the curve. Therefore, let us first quantifythe discrepancy. Therefore we will fit a straight line to a setof paired observations .The mathematical expression of the straight line is(1)where, and are intercept and slope of the line; here,e refers to error between model and observation, which isrepresented as:(2)The best fit line through the data would minimize the sumof the residual errors for all the data.(3)Since it is not necessary that the nodes may fit in a straightline, therefore the nodes by default are scattered throughoutthe network.If we extend the least square procedure to fit the higherorder polynomial, it is called polynomial regression, e.g. 2
nd
 order polynomial or quadratic.+e (4)Here , and are the coefficients and x and y are thecoordinate values for the mobile node,and e is the errorvalue.(5)Taking differentiation of the above equation, we get(6)(7)(8)Rearranging the above equations, we get,(9)(10)(11)In general we can write:(12)(13)Here refers to the standard error of the estimate, y/xindicates that the error is for predicted value of ycorresponding to the value of x. The Figure1 shows thequadratic equation fitting curve for a data for the nodes , fora least square parabola. In figure 4, we observe that thenodes are scattered throughout the network, but least squaremethod as shown in figure 5 for a line will not fit the dataplotted. We, then use the least square parabola as shown infigure 6, to fit the data about the nodes scattered in anetwork.
Figure 4.
Data points plotted and failure of the leastSquare fit line to cover all the points.
Figure 5.
Least square parabola
Figure 6.
Parabola covering all the points scattered
 
(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security,Vol. 2, No. 10, 2010
185
3. Statistical Relation Based Node Sensation
3.1 Quadrant Based Classification
We consider the nodal positions respective to the timinginstants t
1
, t
2
, ……t
n
as (x
1
, y
1
), (x
2
, y
2
)
,……,
(x
n
, y
n
)respectively. We propose a technique of central pointselection and then realizing the existence of nodes in virtualquadrants. The density of quadrants is estimated and themost one is selected as the area of observation.
Issue 1:
If the nodes are more or less equally distributed inall the quadrants, in that case the origin(0,0) will be thecenter and based on that an imaginary circle will be drawnwhose radius r will be equal to
3.2. Relation Based ClassificationIssue 2:
Node trace can be facilitated, if there exists anyrelation between co-ordinates of the nodes[5].Justification:We assume that the nodes N
1
(x
1
, y
1
), N
2
(x
2
,y
2
)
,……,
N
n
(x
n
, y
n
) are the observed nodes suchThat for each node y
i
=cx
i
, (1
i
n) and c is constant.The representation is shown in table 1 which is as follows:
Table 1:
Nodes and respective co-ordinate representationc x
1
).( c x
2
)………… (cx
n
) = c
n
 Therefore,
1/n
(c
n
1/n
=c(
1/n
Therefore, geometric mean of y co-ordinates is equal to theproduct of the constant and geometric mean of x co-ordinates.
4. Node Realization in Cluster Networks
This section mainly focuses on the nodal communicationbetween the farthest node in a N*N structure.Let us assumeeach cluster to be consisting of 16 nodes and then try tocommunicate between the source and the destinationnode.The point to be noted here is that to establish thecommunication link between the adjacent elements or unitsof the cluster we have to have the communication in justreverse order in the two adjacent elements.The order of thecommunication isThe condition can be visually imagined as follows:Now let us consider the case when there is only one elementi.e. 1*1.In this particular case, if we want to communicatebetween the farthest nodes, then there will be only one nodein between the source and the destination which can befurther visualized as follows:If we denote it by using the function f(x), then the value of f(x)will be 1.f(x) =1,the intermediate node is II.Now, let us consider the case 2*2 matrix, the value here willbef(x)=1+2=3; The intermediate nodes are 1(2,3),2(4,3).For the case for the 3*3 matrix, the value of the functionf(x)=1+2+2=5;Similarly for the 4*4 matrix, we can get the value of f(x)=1+2+2+2=7.Here, in this case, we were having only 4 elements in aring.Suppose we have 8 elements in the ring, in that case,wehave to compute the number of nodes required tocommunicate or to establish the connection between thefarthest nodes.Justification:Let us consider the case of 1*1 matrix tocommunicate between the farthest nodes, we need 3 nodes,i.e. f(x)=3.In case of 2*2 matrix, to communicate betweenthe farthest nodes, we need 7 nodes, i.e. f(x)=3+4;In case of 3*3 matrix to communicate between the farthest nodes, weneed 7 nodes, i.e. f(x)=3+4+4;In case of 4*4 matrix, tocommunicate between the farthest nodes, we need 7 nodes,i.e. f(x)=3+4+4+4;In case of 16 elements in a ring, we canproceed as follows:let us consider the case of 1*1 matrix tocommunicate between the farthest nodes, we need 3 nodes,i.e, f(x)=7.In case of 2*2 matrix to communicate betweenthe farthest nodes, we need 7 nodes, i.e. f(x)=7+8;In case of 3*3 matrix to communicate between the farthest nodes, weNodes x
i
y
i
=c x
i
 N
1
 N
2…..
N
n
 x
1
x
2……
x
n
 y
1
=c x
1
y
2
=c x
2…………
y
n
=c x
n
 

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