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Database Basic Concepts

Database Basic Concepts

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Published by Iroshan Priyantha
This is an abstract document of the basic concepts of database environment.
This is an abstract document of the basic concepts of database environment.

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Published by: Iroshan Priyantha on Nov 06, 2010
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01/13/2013

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DATABASE Basic Concepts
 
Q1) Review the three schema model. In a database of student records, what might eachschema consist of?Three Schema model
1.
 
Internal SchemaThe internal schema is the view about the actual physical storage of the data. It tells uswhat data is stored in the database & how. It describes the storage allocation, access pathslike primary key at this level. In a student records database, the internal schema would behow the tables are created & stored, structure of the tables, primary keys & secondarykeys, what techniques used in data compression & encryption.2.
 
Conceptual SchemaThe conceptual schema is the information model of the enterprise & contains the view of the whole database. It includes definitions of each of the various types of data. In Studentrecords database, the data types used to represent entities, entity types (name field,address field), relationships among them, user operations (add, delete, update) &constraints can be considered as conceptual view.3.
 
External SchemaThe external schema is the view that individual user of the database has. Differentviewers has different aspects, thus the same database may provide different views. InStudent records database, student number, name, address etc can be the external view of the database.
Q2) Suppose
you’ve
written a program to read in a set of points from a picture. Howmany co-ordinates does each point have?
It has two co-ordinates for each point as X & Y & can store the color values with this X& Y.
Now want to use the program to read points from a 3D model. How many co-ordinatesdoes each point have?
Then it has three co-ordinates for each point.
 
What happens to your program code & how would program data independence helpyou to make it work?
As the co-ordinates are to be changed, no need of changing the database structure.Because the co-ordinates represent the program data. Therefore whether it is a 2D pictureor a 3D picture, the database remains same while the program code changes according tothe requirement. There the program data independence is very important as theseparation makes it to work independently & do the certain changes & run the programas before.
Why is the concept of “independence” so important?
 
Program data independence allows changing the data storage structures & operationswithout having to change the DBMS. In the data dependant approach, it is very difficultto modify the data & also makes the data inaccessible for other programs. Because whenthe program & data are not independent, when a change needs to be done in the data,almost all the structure of the DBMS needs to be changed. Therefore it will be a highlyinefficient process in programming environment. Therefore independence of data is veryimportant to have a flexible database environment to modify, program data withoutaffecting to the program.
Q3) What is the difference between procedural & non-procedural DMLs?
Non-procedural DMLAllows the user to specify what data is required without specifying how it is to beobtained. It also called as high level DML. The end users use this DML to specify theirrequests to DBMS to retrieve data. The DBMS translates a DML statement into aprocedure that manipulates the records. Example of a non-procedural DML is SQL.Procedural DMLIt is also known as low level DML. It is used to get data or objects from the database. Itretrieves records & processes each operation separately. In this language the looping,branching etc. statements are used to retrieve & process each record. Programmers usethis low level DML.

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