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Formation of Coal & Theories associated with coal formation

Formation of Coal & Theories associated with coal formation

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Published by Izhar Jiskani
Coal Formation
1. The In-situ theory (Autochthanous)
2. Drift Theory (Allochthanous)
Coal Formation
1. The In-situ theory (Autochthanous)
2. Drift Theory (Allochthanous)

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Published by: Izhar Jiskani on Nov 07, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Formation of Coal
Prepared by
Izhar Mithal Jiskani
09 MN 98
Formation of Coal
Coal is non-renewable fossil fuel formed in ecosystem where plant remain were preserved bywater and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. It can also be described as “Coal is thecompacted and preserved remains of plant matter and it is called a fossil fuel because it wasformed from the remains of vegetation that grew as long as 400 million years ago”.It is readily combustible black or brownish-black rock and along with oil and natural gas it is oneof the three most important fossil fuels.Coal is formed when accumulated plant debris is altered physically and chemically. The plantdebris such as leaves, barks, spores etc settled to the bottom of the swamp and decomposing begins under the bacterial action. The decomposition is not complete because the stagnant water inthe swamps stops the decaying process due to the lack of oxygen. This partially decomposedmaterial is known as peat. Peat is the beginning of coal forming process and is calledCoalification.There are four stages in coal formation: peat, lignite, bituminous and anthracite. The stage dependsupon the conditions to which the plant remains are subjected after they were buried - the greater the pressure and heat, the higher the rank of coal. Higher-ranking coal is denser and contains lessmoisture and gases and has a higher heat value than lower-ranking coal.Coal is a sedimentary rock but the forms such as anthracite coal can be regarded as metamorphicrocks because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure. It has a wide range of uses;the most important use is for the generation of electricity.
Society of Mining Engineers,
Department of Mining EngineersMehran University of Engineering & Technology, Jamshoro

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