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Some Specimen Proofs
A Inequalities and Square Roots
A.1 Absolute Value and the Triangle Inequality
A.2 Square Roots
A.3 Another Inequality
B Some Spoofs
C Proofs from Geometry
C.1 Pythagoras
C.2 The Curry Triangle
D From Calculus
E Prime Numbers and the Irrational
F Algebraic Formulas
F.1 Simple Summation Formulas
F.2 Properties of Factorial
A Logical Propositions, Connectives, and Quantiﬁers
A.1 Basic Logical Connectives
A.2 Open Statements and Quantiﬁers
A.3 Negating Quantiﬁed and Other Compound Propositions
A.4 Context and Hypotheses
B Some Basic Types of Proofs
B.1 Elementary Propositions and “And” Statements
B.2 “Or” Statements
B.3 Implications and “For all ...” Statements
B.4 Equivalence
B.6 Existence and Uniqueness Proofs
B.7 Proofs by Induction
C Some Advice for Writing Proofs
D Perspective: Proofs and Discovery
Sets and Functions
A Notation and Basic Concepts
B Basic Operations and Properties
C Product Sets
D The Power Set of a Set
E Relations
F Functions
G.1 Finite Sets
G.2 Countable and Uncountable Sets
G.3 The Schroeder-Bernstein Theorem
H Perspective: The Strange World at the Foundations of Mathe-
H.1 The Continuum Hypothesis
The Integers
A The Integers: Z
A.1 Axioms for The Integers
A.2 Consequences of the Well-Ordering Principle
B Greatest Common Divisors
B.1 The Euclidean Algorithm
C The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic
D The Integers Mod m
E Axioms and Beyond: G¨odel Crashes the Party
Polynomials
A Preliminaries
B Q[x] and the Rational Root Theorem
C R[x] and Descartes’ Rule of Signs
D C[z] and The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra
D.1 Some Properties of the Complex Numbers
D.2 The Fundamental Theorem
Appendix: Mathematical Words
Bibliography
Index
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Uvodumatematiku-knjiga

# Uvodumatematiku-knjiga

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01/02/2013

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