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Table Of Contents

1 Introduction
2 Standards and Legal Framework
2.1 Philosophy Underlying the Standards
2.2 The Legal Situation in the UK
2.3 Summary of Contents of Main Standards and Codes of Practice
2.3.1 Domestic, commercial and industrial premises
2.3.1.1 Existing
2.3.2 High and medium voltage electricity substations
2.3.2.1 Existing
2.3.2.2 Future
3 Methods of Earthing
3.1 Main Power Network
3.1.1 Unearthed or insulated system
3.1.2 Earthed systems
3.1.2.1 Impedance earthed system
3.1.2.2 Low impedance (solidly) earthed system
3.2 Earthing on LV Systems and Within Premises
3.2.1 Types of System
4.3.3 Horizontal electrodes
4.3.4 Electrode Derivatives
5 Installation Methods
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Rods
5.3 Plates
5.4 Horizontal Electrodes
5.5 Backfill
5.6 Connections
5.6.1 Mechanical connections
5.6.2 Brazed connections
5.6.3 Exothermic joints
5.6.4 Welded connections
5.7 Fault Current Carrying Capacity
5.8 Testing and Inspection Facilities
6 Performance of Earth Electrodes
6.1 Effect of Electrode Shape, Size and Position
6.1.1 Increasing the buried depth of a vertical rod in uniform soil
6.1.2 Increasing the length of a horizontal conductor
6.1.3 Increasing the side length of a square earth grid/plate
6.1.4 Increasing the radius of an earth rod
6.1.5 Buried depth
6.1.6 Proximity effect
6.2 Complex Electrode Arrangements
6.3 Contact Resistance
6.4 Soil Resistivity
6.5 Measurement of Soil Resistivity
7 Design of Earth Electrode Systems
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Small Area Electrode Systems
7.3 Medium Area Electrode Systems
7.4 Sites Requiring More Specific Attention
7.4.1 Communication facilities
7.4.2 Surge diverters
7.4.3 Reactors and AC to DC converters
7.4.4 Co-generation plants
7.4.5 Capacitor banks/capacitor voltage transformers
7.4.6 Gas insulated switchgear (GIS)
7.4.7 Fence earthing
7.4.7.1 Independent fence earthing
7.4.7.2 Fence connected to the substation earthing
8 Earthing Design Within Buildings
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Typical TN-S Arrangements
8.3 Integrated Earthing Systems
8.4 Arrangements to reduce interference
9 Lightning Protection
9.1 Introduction
9.2 The Formation of Lightning
9.3 Risk Assessment
9.4 Components of the Lightning Protection System
9.4.1 Air terminations
9.4.2 Down leads and bonding conductors
9.4.3 Earth termination
9.4.4 Surge protection devices
9.5 Lightning Protection of Power Lines
10 Electrical Interference
10.1 Resistive Coupling
10.2 Capacitive Coupling
10.3 Inductive Coupling
11 Corrosion
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Types of Corrosion
11.2.1 In air
11.2.2 Underground
11.2.2.1 Bimetallic corrosion
11.2.2.2 Chemical corrosion
11.3 Resistance to Corrosion
11.3.1 Atmospheric oxidation
11.3.2 Underground corrosion
11.4 Corrosion Test Field Trials
12 Types of Copper and Typical Applications
12.1 Coppers
12.1.1 High conductivity coppers
12.1.2 Deoxidised copper
12.1.3 Oxygen-free High Conductivity copper
12.1.4 High Conductivity copper alloys
12.2 Standard Copper Designations
12.2.1 BS EN Standards
12.3 Properties
12.3.1 Electrical conductivity and resistivity
12.3.2 Thermal conductivity
12.3.3 Temper designations
12.3.4 Tensile strength
12.3.5 Other properties
12.4 Joining Coppers
13 Measuring the Impedance of Earth Electrode Systems
13.1 Introduction
13.2 Equipment Required
13.3 Safety
13.4 Measurement of Small and Medium Sized Electrodes
13.5 Measurement of Larger Area Electrode Systems
14 Artificial Method of Reducing Earth Resistivity
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Acceptable Low Resistivity Materials
14.2.1 Bentonite
14.2.2 Marconite
14.2.3 Gypsum
14.2.4 Others
14.3 Unacceptable Backfill Materials
15 Maintenance of Earthing Systems
15.1 Introduction
15.2 The Philosophy of Maintenance
15.3 Inspection
15.4 Examination
16 Further Reading
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Design Earthing

Design Earthing

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Published by: Oktarina Puspitasari on Nov 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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