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DRAFT for Review-Riau Forestry Sector Employment Study-July 2005

DRAFT for Review-Riau Forestry Sector Employment Study-July 2005

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This study analyses forestry sector employment in Indonesia’s Riau province in 2001. Based on official statistics and survey data, it estimates that some 86,500 workers were employed in Riau’s forestry sector in that year. Of these, approximately 38,000 workers were engaged in commercial timber extraction or pulpwood production, while just over 48,500 were involved in wood processing activities at plywood, sawnwood, or pulp and paper mills.
This study analyses forestry sector employment in Indonesia’s Riau province in 2001. Based on official statistics and survey data, it estimates that some 86,500 workers were employed in Riau’s forestry sector in that year. Of these, approximately 38,000 workers were engaged in commercial timber extraction or pulpwood production, while just over 48,500 were involved in wood processing activities at plywood, sawnwood, or pulp and paper mills.

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DRAFT FOR REVIEW
Forestry Sector Employment in Indonesia’s Riau Province
Krystof Obidzinski and Christopher Barr July 2005
 
DRAFT for Review July 2005
i
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This study analyses forestry sector employment in Indonesia’s Riau province in 2001.Based on official statistics and survey data, it estimates that some 86,500 workers wereemployed in Riau’s forestry sector in that year. Of these, approximately 38,000 workerswere engaged in commercial timber extraction or pulpwood production, while just over 48,500 were involved in wood processing activities at plywood, sawnwood, or pulp and paper mills.Table A-1 summarizes the study’s findings related to direct employment in commercialtimber extraction or pulpwood production. HTI pulpwood plantations accounted for approximately 48 percent of the overall employment in log production, with over 17,700workers involved in planting 55,000 ha of 
 Acacia
 plantations and harvesting 3.9 millionm3 at existing plantation sites. Approximately 14,400 workers – or 38 percent of the total -- were involved in harvesting 13.9 million m3 of roundwood from undocumented sources,accounting for roughly two-thirds of the logs produced in the province. Reported IPK landclearing activities employed just under 3,800 workers (or 10 percent of the total), whileHPH logging concessions employed over 2,000 workers (or 5 percent of the total).Table A-1: Direct Employment from Commercial Timber and Pulpwood Production inRiau Province, 2001
Subsector Log Production(m3)Area Planted(ha)DirectEmploymentPercent of Total (%)
HPH Logging Concessions 113,065 0 2,032 5.3IPK Land Clearing 3,656,686 0 3,782 9.9Undocumented Log Production 13,944,089 0 14,396 37.9HTI Pulpwood Plantations 3,935,000 55,000 17,784 47.9
Total 21,648,840 55,000 37,944 100.0
Table A-2 summarizes the study’s findings related to direct employment in wood processing. Over 26,500 workers were directly employed by the province’s 13 plywoodand wood working mills, accounting for nearly 55 percent of all jobs in wood processingindustries. Licensed sawmills and unlicensed sawmills generated 12,500 and 2,600 jobs,respectively, to account for over 30 percent of the total employment in wood processing.Riau’s two large pulp and paper mills – RAPP and Indah Kiat – together directly generated6,480 jobs in 2001, representing 14 percent of the total.
 
DRAFT for Review July 2005
iiTable A-2: Direct Employment in Wood Processing Industries in Riau Province, 2001
Subsector Production DirectEmploymentPercent of Total (%)
Plywood and Wood Working 1,052,316 m3 26,573 54.7Licensed Sawnwood 1,187,364 m3 12,499 25.7Unlicensed Sawnwood 867,240 m3 2,641 5.5Pulp and Paper 3,150,000 Adt 6,840 14.1
Total
--
48,553 100.0Key points to emerge from this analysis include the following:
1)
 
Selective logging by HPH concession-holders was the largest source of timber  production through the mid-1990s, but the HPH subsector is now in a process of rapid decline. Direct employment for Riau’s HPH subsector decreased from 8,455employees in 1999 to 1,468 employees in 2001 – a drop of more than 80 percentover the preceding three years alone.2)
 
Forest conversion has risen sharply in recent years, and land clearing is now thedominant means of log production in Riau, accounting for up to 17.6 million m3 in2001. This involved the clearing of approximately 135,000 ha and generatedemployment for over 18,000 workers. Land clearing activities typically generatedemployment for 134 workers per 1,000 ha – a far higher level of labor input per unit of land than either HTI pulpwood plantations or HPH selective loggingconcessions. However, employment generated by land clearing activities is short-term in nature and inherently unsustainable. The degree of labor inputs involved inland clearing varies quite considerably depending on whether an area is beingcleared in a manual, semi-mechanized, or mechanized manner. The conversion of 1,000 ha typically requires 440 workers if it is done manually; 96 workers if it isdone with semi-mechanized operations; and 39 workers if done throughmechanized operations.3)
 
Approximately 13.9 million m3 – or two-thirds of all logs harvested from Riau’snatural forests during 2001 – came from undocumented sources. A significant portion of this wood has been harvested by IPK land clearing permit-holders andinformal land-clearing operations whose production levels are not fully reflected instatistics published by the Provincial Forestry Service. This implies that up to14,400 workers, or nearly 40 percent of all those involved in log production inRiau, are working in what may be characterized an informal sector.4)
 
The HTI pulpwood plantation subsector has grown substantially over the pastdecade and is likely to continue to expand over the medium term to meet the fiber needs of Riau’s pulp mills. Some 13,200 workers were involved in theestablishment of the 55,000 ha (net) of pulpwood plantations reported to have been planted in 2001. In addition, approximately 4,600 workers were then involved in

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