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Chapters 10,11 and 12 Assessment Questions

Chapters 10,11 and 12 Assessment Questions



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Published by Steven Sanderson

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Published by: Steven Sanderson on Oct 24, 2007
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 Name: Steven P Sanderson IIDate: 6/26/06Class: Intro to Business BA11 5040Professor: McNamaraChapter 10Questions from page 305What are the similarities and differences between Taylor’s time-motion studies andMayo’s Hawthorne studies?Taylor’s time-motion studies dealt with the time it took to perform a task. Taylor  proceeded to invent a wide variety of sizes and shapes of shovels and, with stopwatch inhand, measured output over time in what became known as time-motion studies – studiesof the tasks performed to complete a job and th3e time needed to do each task. Sureenough, an average person could shovel more (in fact, form 25 to 35 tons more per day)using the most efficient and effective methods and tools. Taylor’s scientific managementcame to dominate the 1900’s. With Hawthorne it seemed people would perform better when they know they are being studied. Both forms produced better productivity but indifferent ways. With Hawthorne’s study people felt that they were in a social group, theatmosphere was informal and they could talk freely and they interacted regularly withtheir supervisors and the experimenters. The workers were involved in the planning of the experiments. For example, they rejected one kind of pay schedule and recommendedanother, which was used and made them feel like their opinions were valued.How did Mayo’s findings influence scientific management?Mayo found that not only was an efficient method needed to perform the job in the bestway but also need to satisfy the employees in a certain manner. This cam through withthe Hawthorne studies. He showed that people needed to feel valued and appreciated. No matter what the physical conditions were, the workers enjoyed the atmosphere of their special room and the additional pay they got for more productivity, and satisfactionincreased substantially.Draw a diagram of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Label and describe the parts.Self actualization the top of the pyramid and is the need to develop ones self to the fullest potential. Esteem needs which is the next one down is the need for recognition andacknowledgment from others, as well as self respect and a sense of status or importance.Social needs which are the need to feel loved accepted and part of the group. Next comesSafety needs come next and are the needs to feel secure at work and at home. Finally the bottom but most important part of the pyramid Physiological needs, which contain thevery basic of needs, such as shelter and the need for food and water.According to Andrew Grove, what is the ultimate source of all motivation?According to Andrew Grove the ultimate source of all motivation is from self actualization or the need to develop ones self to the fullest potential.Questions from page 316
Briefly describe the managerial attitudes behind Theories X, Y and ZSome attitudes of Theory X management are as follows: Employees dislike work andwill try to avoid it, Employees prefer to be controlled and directed, Employees seek security, not responsibility, employees must be intimidated by managers to perform andemployees are motivated by financial rewards. Some theories from theory Y are asfollows: Employees view work as a natural part of life, employees prefer limited controland direction, employees will seed responsibility under proper work conditions,employees perform better in work environments that are not intimidating and employeesare motivated by many different needs not just money. Lastly some theories from TheoryY are as follows: Employees involvement is the key to increased productivity, employeecontrol is implied and informal, employees prefer to share responsibility and decisionmaking, employees perform better in environments that foster trust and cooperation andfinally employees need guaranteed employment and will accept slow evaluations and promotions.Relate job enrichment to Herzberg’s motivating factors.Job enrichment can come from many different forms on the job. Some of the things thatcold bring enrichment to an employee mentioned by Herzberg are as follows: Employeesneed to feel a sense of achievement, they need earned recognition, generally need to beinterested in the work at hand; they need an opportunity for growth and advancement.Employees also need to have a sense or responsibility along with peer groups and naturalrelationships. Another motivating factor but not the top factor is pay, which we all needto pay the bills, a supervisors fairness is also something that is needed otherwiseemployees may feel that they are being cheated or not as good as others or just not like bythe manager.Evaluate expectancy theory. Can you think of situations in which expectancy theorycould apply to your efforts of lack of effort?Victor Vroom stated that the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task dependson their expectations of the outcome. I find this to be true in many places. For exampleat my last job I was a supervisor, but my boss was a Theory X type of manager andwanted the employees treated in a certain manner. Now I deliberately chose to treat theemployees in a different manner. I liked to treat them in the Theory of Y. For me itseemed to work, I was able to gain the respect and trust of the crew that I was supervisingand was able to get the job done every night and usually ahead of schedule. By takingthe employees out of the prison like environment I made them feel like they were human beings and actually made a difference in what happened around the job.Explain the principals of Equity Theory.Equity Theory deals with the questions “If I do a good job, will it be worth it?” and“What’s fair?” It has to do with perceptions of fairness and how those perceptions affectemployees’ willingness to perform, the basic principle is that employees try to maintainequity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions. Equitycomparisons are made from the information that is available through personal
relationships, professional organizations and so on. This also has to do with social capitalwhich I had mentioned in one of my reaction papers in the last module.Questions form page 322What are several steps firms can take to increase internal communications and thusmotivation?Some steps that can help to increase communication and thus motivation are self directedteams and communications systems such as e-mail. Open communication helps both topmanagers and team members understand the objectives and work together to achievethem. Communication must flow freely through out the organization when teams areempowered to make decisions – they can’t make these decisions in a vacuum. It iscrucial for people to be able to access the knowledge they need when they need it,which is why we have seen the rise and growth of companies such as Google that taketoday’s information and catalogue it for the world to see, and apply if needed. The needto create an organizational culture that rewards listening is also important. Manages mustcreate places to talk and the must show employees that talking with superiors counts – by providing feedback, adopting employee suggestions and rewarding upwardcommunication – even if the discussion is negative. Employees must feel free to sayanything they deem appropriate.What problems may emerge when trying to implement participative management?Some problems that may occur when trying to establish participative management arethat the different generations may clash. It is common for the previous generation tothink that the next generation is lazy and always breaks the rules. When in fact the newgeneration is just doing what they deem necessary to get the job done and is the best wayfor them to do it. Besides, employees react different to different styles of management.It is quite impossible to please all the people all of the time but it is possible to pleasesome of the people most of the time and finding managers that can do this is not alwayseasy.Why is it important today to adjust motivational styles to individual employees? Arethere any general principles of motivation that today’s mangers should follow?Today it is important to adjust to different motivational styles to help individualemployees stay motivated not only because of the cost associated with loosing one andretraining another but it could also reflect on the company’s reputation. By loosing oneemployee you may loose the productivity of many employees because of the social bond between them that has since been broken. There are of course many general principalsthat can be followed by today’s managers. Many of them are mentioned earlier in thechapter. By making employees feel needed and taking them seriously you not only makethem feel appreciated but you empower them at the same time. The way that they become empowered is that now they know you value their opinion and they will do whatit takes to get that feeling over and over again. It makes them feel like not just employees but partners with you on the project that is being worked on for the company.

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