is an8-bitmicroprocessorintroduced byIntelin 1977. Itwas binary-compatible with the more-famousIntel 8080but required lesssupporting hardware, thus allowing simpler and less expensivemicrocomputersystems to be built. The "5" in the model number came from the fact that the 8085 requiredonly a +5-volt(V) power supply rather than the +5V, -5V and +12Vsupplies the 8080 needed. Both processors were sometimes used incomputers running theCP/M operating system, and the 8085 later sawuse as amicrocontroller, by virtue of its low component count. Bothdesigns were eclipsed for desktop computers by the compatibleZilog Z80,which took over most of the CP/M computer market as well as taking ashare of the boominghome computermarket in the early-to-mid-1980s. The 8085 had a long life as a controller. Once designed into such productsas theDECtapecontroller and theVT100video terminal in the late 1970s,it continued to serve for new production throughout the life span of thoseproducts (generally longer than the product life of desktop computers).
The 8085 is a conventionalvon Neumanndesign based on the Intel 8080.Unlike the 8080 it had no state signals multiplexed onto the data bus, butthe 8-bitdata buswas instead multiplexed with the lower part of the 16-bitaddress busto limit the number of pins to 40. Pin #40 is used for thepower supply (+5v) and pin #20 for ground. Pin #39 is used as the holdpin. Pins #15 to #8 are generally used for address buses. The processorwas designed usingnMOScircuitry and the later "H" versions wereimplemented in Intel's enhanced nMOS process called HMOS, originallydeveloped for fast static RAM products. Only a 5 Volt supply was needed,like competing processors and unlike the 8080. The 8085 usedapproximately 6,500transistors.
The 8085 incorporated the functionality of the 8224 (clock generator) andthe 8228 (system controller), increasing the level of integration. Adownside compared to similar contemporary designs (such as the Z80)was the fact that the buses required demultiplexing; however, addresslatches in the Intel 8155, 8355, and 8755 memory chips allowed a directinterface, so an 8085 along with these chips was almost a completesystem. The 8085 had extensions to support new interrupts: It had three maskableinterrupts (RST 7.5, RST 6.5 and RST 5.5), onenon-maskable interrupt(TRAP), and one externally serviced interrupt (INTR). The RST n.5interrupts refer to actual pins on the processor, a feature which permittedsimple systems to avoid the cost of a separate interrupt controller.Like the 8080, the 8085 could accommodate slower memories throughexternally generatedwait states(pin 35, READY), and had provisions forDirect Memory Access(DMA) using HOLD and HLDA signals (pins 39 and38). An improvement over the 8080 was that the 8085 can itself drive apiezoelectric crystaldirectly connected to it, and a built in clock generator