Name ________________________ Class/Period ____________________________ Date ________________ http://timpanogos.wordpress.com/2006/08/19/forgotten-texas-history-battle-of-medina/The long drive for Texas independence from Mexico may be more clearly seen in the light of the continents-long struggles for independence that included not only the American Revolution, but also revolutions in thenations of Haiti, Mexico, Chiapas, and others across Central America and South America.
The Battle of Medina was a part of that earlier history. Fought on August 18, 1813, it was more deadly than any otherbattle in the wars for Texas independence. It is linked to Mexico’s long history of struggle.
“Contrary to popular belief, the struggle for democracy in Texas did not begin with the Anglo-led revolution of 1835-36,” author and historianJames Haley wrote in a recent
article. “In fact, theyearning for liberty had its own ongoing legacy in Latin America.“As early as 1810, movements for independence began simultaneously in Venezuela and Argentina. It was alsoin 1810, on Sept. 16, that the Mexican priest Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla raised his famous
the cryfor social justice that opened the Mexican campaign for independence, a date now celebrated as
Diez y Seis
.”(Chapman)America was drawn into that campaign when it funded a small force under the control of Bernardo Gutierrez deLara, one of Father Hidalgo’s emissaries. A former Army officer, Augustus Magee, went along with theexpedition to offer military advice. The Gutierrez-Magee Expedition, also called the Green Flag Rebellion because of its banner, soon captured Nacogdoches. All went well for the expedition — too well — and Texasindependence was quickly claimed. Spain took immediate measures to quell the insurrection.It ended at the Battle of Medina, “the biggest, bloodiest battle ever fought on Texas soil,” a South Texashistorian says.Spanish forces slaughtered more than 1,000 of the rebels. The battle methods, and total extermination of thelosing forces, would recur in the Texas Revolution.Fewer than 100 republic troops survived the battle, Thonhoff said. Those not killed in the battle were later chased down and executed. Retaliation went on for days. Spanish royalist forces swept into San Antonio andtook revenge on anyone they suspected of aiding the rebel forces. One of the royalist officers was a young Lt.Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna.The bodies of soldiers killed in battle were left where they fell. It would be nine years before their bones weregathered and buried in a communal grave.1. Who funded a small force under the control of Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara and Augustus Magee in anattempt to secure Texas independence? ______________________________ 2.How did Spain react to the Gutierrez-Magee Expedition? _____________________________________ 3.What was the bloodiest battle ever fought on Texas soil? _____________________________________ 4.What did Spain do to the soldiers they did not kill in battle?____________________________________ 5.Who was the young royalist officer that took revenge on the people of San Antonio? _____________________________________