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Hybrid Cars

Hybrid Cars

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Published by Amol Bankar
Hybrid Car: The future car
Hybrid Car: The future car

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Published by: Amol Bankar on Nov 09, 2010
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03/23/2011

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Hybrids car: The future car 
 Course: Management Information SystemsInstructor: Dr. Prithwis Mukerjee Amol Bankar (10BM60009)Vinod Gupta School of Management, IIT Kharaghpur 
Abstract
With the ever increasing crisis of the fossil fuels, the need of the hour is to switch our energy supply tosome non conventional source. Automobiles consume a major chunk of fossil fuels, socars/automobiles running on some alternate source of energy would be of much help in this pursuit.Hybrid cars are one such radical developing technology which uses hybrid or mixture of fuels(generally a conventional and a non conventional one). This paper explores new vistas for the futureof hybrid cars together with the approach and the requirements of such an endeavour. It will alsopresent a comparison on existing as well as future cars.
Introduction
 
Massive investment in the field of developing green, efficient and alternative fuel vehicles has beenfuelled by the growing concerns of reducing carbon emissions and the increasing highly volatileconventional fuel prices. The recently observed growth of around 15% in the Hybrid car sales in spiteof a global Automobile Industry slowdown proves that the Hybrid car concept has emerged as themost feasible and viable solution to the current situation ant it is fast attracting a huge attention of themajor players in the Automobile industry.Though now, only the major players like Honda and Toyota in the field of automobile industry are thetorch bearers in the field of Hybrid cars, but now it is observed that almost all the players are takinginitiative to harness the huge untapped potential in this field. This report contains a detailed Marketsurvey of the emerging new technologies and players in the field of Hybrid cars. At the global level U.S leads the Hybrid car sales; second spot is shared by Japan and Europe. Thisreport also throws some light on the policies undertaken worldwide by various governments topromote usage of green cars. The report also contains a forecast of future of Hybrid market worldwideand country level. The economic and the environmental benefits of the Hybrid car, the hurdles in therise in the Hybrid cars are also covered in the report. Forecasting is done taking into considerationthe current market slowdowns and the expected future positive developments in the market. Themore fuel efficient and the cost effective models launched by Toyota and Honda and also theinitiatives taken by the government worldwide remain key factors in the development of Hybrid cars asthe most viable solution to the current environmental problems and depleting fuel resources.
 
A Insight into the history of the Hybrid cars
The Hybrid car has finally leaded to the ends meet wherein everyone consumes fewer amounts of fuel and thus contributing in the reduction of air pollution. The rapid advancements taking place in thefield of Gasoline engine has lead to the increased popularity of Hybrid cars. Hybrid cars use twopower sources, one recharge and another fuel driven to drive the internal combustion engine. Thisleads to less consumption of fuel and air pollution.The credit of invention of the concept of Hybrid car goes to Ferdinand Porsche. He was the one whomade the first Hybrid electric vehicle way back in 1989. Following his footsteps many people havepursued their interest in the field of Hybrid vehicles. However till twentieth century none of the major car manufacturers neither invested in the field of Hybrid cars nor produced them in mass quantity.From its invention till the twentieth century the hybrid technology was mainly used in the submarinesoperating on diesel and electricity. The submarines operating on both diesel and electricity functionsvery much the same as the hybrid car. However the main difference was that in submarine the mainmotive was to conserve as much oxygen in the submarine rather than to cut on the usage of gasolineas in the case of Hybrid car. Now nuclear submarines have evolved and they have substituted thediesel ±electric submarines.Victor Wouk, an idealistic inventor is the father of today¶s modern hybrid car. He was the one whoinstead of focusing on making a complete electric car came up with a brilliant idea of combining lowemission benefits of a electric car and the huge power generating capacity of a gasoline engine. Atthat Wouk did not get any encouragement to his ideas. He was heavily criticized from the idea of building a car fully operated on electricity. Wouk along with his colleague, Charlie Rosen stated acompany to develop on their new Hybrid car idea and to make the hybrid car very much similar to theones running everyday on the busy streets of America but emitted fat less air pollutants than theconventitional vehicles.In the late 19
th
century the Honda Insight and the Toyota Pirus emerged as the first two successfulHybrid cars ,they were the pioneers in the concept of hybrid cars .With their looks and Technologysuperiority they introduced a new dimension in the automobile industry called the Hybrid cars. It istrue that the conventional and the older versions of the Hybrid car looked like alien and wereextremely bulky and high priced. But new technology has now enabled the manufacturers to designand build Hybrid cars that closely resemble the conventitional gasoline cars and also cut down on thecost involved in building a Hybrid car. In fact modern Hybrid car looks very much like a conventionalgasoline car plus the reduced emissions coupled with fuel consumption is reduced by a whopping50%. For Example, Honda Civic hybrid model which in appearance is very similar to the conventionalversion one gives an average of 50 miles per gallon. Ever since its launch Toyota Pirus has remainedthe premium choice among the Hybrid cars. During Year 2004 Ford also entered the Hybrid car segments with the launch of Model Ford Escape, a hybrid SUV, a first of its kind. A year later Toyotaalso came up with a Hybrid SUV called highlander. Nissan is now planning to introduce a Hybridversion of the Model Nissan Altima in the market. The growing demand and the popularity of theHybrid car have forced other manufacturers to follow the footsteps of other auto giants who alreadyhave launched a version in the hybrid car market.
Working of a Hybrid car: A Glimpse
In simple terms a Hybrid car makes use of both electricity and gasoline to power the car. When thecar is in idling mode at the petrol station or at a traffic junction the gasoline engine shuts off .The car is then purely running on the support of the electric motor. This can explain the high fuel efficiency of the Hybrid car compared to the gasoline car. Also as the operation on the electric motor is smoothprocess, that¶s why Hybrid cars are generally very quiet on roads. Once the accelerator is pressedagain, the internal combustion engine automatically takes over.
 
 
Fig 1 Fig 2
 
Figure 1 shows how the Internal Combustion engine, Generator, Power spilt Device, Electric motor are linked to each to other in hybrid vehicle, while figure 2 shows a schematic representation of thetransfer of power in a Hybrid vehicle during motion. There are Hybrid cars which operate purely onelectricity and use internal combustion engine as a backup or for recharging the batteries. However the limitation is that they are useful only for local travels. For long travels it is advisable to keep fuel asa backup. Most Hybrid cars developed today use Kinetic energy generated in breaking for chargingthe batteries; they don¶t need to be plugged in like electric car.To summarise Hybrid car consists of batteries for the storage of energy, fuel tank for the storage of fuel which is very essential in long drives, internal combustion engine to generate power to propel thevehicle and electric motor.
Types of Hybrid cars
Parallel hybrid
: Parallel Hybrid primarily consists of single electric motor and internal combustionengine. The two engines either operate individually or together to provide power. The gear box,electric motor and the internal combustion engine are engaged with each other with the help of clutch.While in idling condition or when the car is running on the electric motor the clutch is engaged with theelectric motor .When in need of high power the clutch is coupled with the internal combustion engine,while the electric motor remains idle. Honda Insight is the first produced and widely popular vehicle inthis category.
Fig 3 Honda Insight

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