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Colloids.latestdocx

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1
Colloids
Colloids are mixtures whose particles are larger than the size of a molecule but smaller than particles that can be seen with the naked eye. Colloids are one of three major types of mixtures, the other two being solutions and suspensions. The three kinds of mixtures aredistinguished by the size of the particles that make them up.
Type
s of colloids
Colloids are common in everyday life. Some examples include whipped cream, mayonnaise,milk, butter, gelatin, jelly, muddy water, plaster, colored glass, and paper.Every colloid consists of two parts: colloidal particles and the dispersing medium. Thedispersing medium is the substance in which the colloidal particles are distributed. In muddywater, for example, the colloidal particles are tiny grains of sand, silt, and clay. The dispersingmedium is the water in which these particles are suspended.Colloids can be made from almost any combination of gas, liquid, and solid. The particles of which the colloid is made are called the dispersed material. Any colloid consisting of a soliddispersed in a gas is called a smoke. A liquid dispersed in a gas is referred to as a fog.In some cases, a colloid can be considered as a homogeneous mixture. This is because thedistinction between "dissolved" and "particulate" matter can be sometimes a matter of approach, which affects whether or not it is homogeneous or heterogeneous.The terms lyophilic and lyophobic include all dispersing mediums whereas
h
y
dro
p
hilic
and
h
y
dro
p
hobic
indicate that the dispersing medium is water. The differences betweenhydrophilic and hydrophobic colloids are their degree of hydration and their reaction toelectrolytes. The particles of a hydrophilic colloid require the addition of a large quantity of an electrolyte to bring about coagulation, whereas the hydrophobic colloids are sensitive to,and coagulated by, very small quantities of electrolytes.
a) H
y
dro
p
hilic Colloids
y
 
H
ydrophilic means "water loving"
y
 
H
ydrophilic colloids have solutes with structural groups exposed on their surface thatare able to hydrogen bond with water (electronegative groups with or withouthydrogen covalently attached)
y
 
while the hydrophilic, polar groups are found on the surface, interacting with the water molecules. These hydrophilic groups generally contain oxygen or nitrogen.
y
 
Since "like dissolves like" hydrophilic colloids form aqueous colloidal dispersions
y
 
G
elatin, agar-agar, starch, and protein solutions belong to the hydrophilic group.
 
 
2
 
b) H
y
dro
p
hobic Colloids
y
 
H
ydrophobic means "water fearing"
y
 
H
ydrophobic colloids have solutes with surface groups that cannot hydrogen bond,and typically involving groups that can only interact via dispersion forces
y
 
the metal sols belong to the hydrophobic group.
y
 
H
ydrophobic colloids can be stabilized by adsorption of ions on their surface. Theseadsorbed ions can interact with water, thereby stabilizing the colloid. At the sametime, the mutual repulsion between colloid particles with adsorbed ions of the samecharge keeps the particles from colliding and so getting larger.
y
 
H
ydrophobic colloids cannot be prepared in water - unless some type of chemicalalteration is done to the solute.
o
 
If the solute can adsorb ions onto its surface, then it may be able to interactstrong enough with water. (Note: adsorb means to stick to the surface).
o
 
Another strategy is to combine the solute with another molecule that has twodistinct ends to it. One end is hydrophobic in nature, the other hydrophilic. Thehydrophobic end binds to the hydrophobic solute, and the hydrophilic end caninteract with water (and solubilize the hydrophobic solute). Examples of thisare soap molecules, and the digestive juices called bile (helps to dissolve fatsin the diet in the aqueous environment of our bodies).
Removal of Colloidal Particles
Colloidal particles frequently must be removed from a dispersing medium, as in the removalof smoke from stacks or butterfat from milk. Because colloidal particles are so small, theycannot be extracted by simple filtration. The colloidal particles must be enlarged, a processcalled
coagulation
. The resultant larger particles can then be separated by filtration or merely by allowing them to settle out of the dispersing medium.
 
1
.
H
e
ating or adding an
e
l
e
ctrol
y
t
e
to the mixture may bring about coagulation.
H
eating the colloidal dispersion increases the particle motion and so the number of collisions. The particles increase in size as they stick together after colliding. Theaddition of electrolytes causes neutralization of the surface charges of the particles,thereby removing the electrostatic repulsions that inhibit their coming together. Theeffect of electrolytes is seen in the depositing of suspended clay in a river as it mixeswith salt water.2.
Sem
i
pe
r
me
abl
e
 
mem
bran
e
s
can also be used to separate ions from colloidal particles, because the ions can pass through the membrane but the colloid particlescannot. This type of separation is known as
ialysis
. This process is used in the purification of blood in artificial kidney machines.
3.
 
H
y
dro
p
hobic colloids can also b
e
stabiliz
e
d b
y
th
e
 
p
r
e
s
e
nc
e
of oth
e
r h
y
dro
p
hilicgrou
p
s on th
e
ir surfac
e
s
. For example, small droplets of oil are hydrophobic. Theydo not remain suspended in water; instead, they separate, forming an oil slick on thesurface of the water. Addition of sodium stearate, or any similar substance having oneend that is hydrophilic (polar, or charged) and one that is hydrophobic (nonpolar), willstabilize a suspension of oil in water. The hydrophobic ends of the stearate ionsinteract with the oil droplet, and the hydrophilic ends point out toward the water withwhich they interact.
 
 
3
 
P
ro
pe
rti
e
s of colloids
Colloids also exhibit Brownian movement. Brownian movement is the random zigzag motionof particles that can be seen under a microscope. The motion is caused by the collision of molecules with colloid particles in the dispersing medium. In addition, colloids display theTyndall effect. When a strong light is shone through a colloidal dispersion, the light beam becomes visible, like a column of light.The Tyndall Effect is the scattering of a beam of light when passed through a mediumcontaining small suspended particles (as smoky or mist-laden air or colloidal solutions).-a type of mechanical mixture where one substance is dispersed evenly throughout another -A colloidal system consists of two separate phases: a dispersed phase (or internal phase) anda continuous phase (or dispersion medium).-A colloidal system may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.-colloidal particles scatter light. The scattering of light by colloids, known as the Tyndalleffect. If a beam of light, such as that from a flashlight, passes through a colloid, the light isreflected (scattered) by the colloidal particles and the path of the light can therefore beobserved.-The particles of a colloid selectively absorb ions and acquire an electric charge.All of the particles of a given colloid take on the same charge (either positive or negative)and thus are repelled by one another. If an electric potential is applied to a colloid, thecharged colloidal particles move toward the oppositely charged electrode; this migration iscalled electrophoresis. If the charge on the particles is neutralized, they may precipitate out of the suspension. A colloid may be precipitated by adding another colloid with oppositelycharged particles; the particles are attracted to one another, coagulate, and precipitate out.Addition of soluble ions may precipitate a colloid;-the particle size ranges between
10
-7
and
10
-5
cm. For example, milk, blood, honey, smoke, ink, gum, starch solution etc.

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