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8 Bread Baking

8 Bread Baking

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Published by: ami234 on Nov 10, 2010
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11/16/2012

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8
Bread-
ba
ki
ng
Tech
nology
Principles
of
baking
Primitive man, a nomadic hunter and gathererof fruits and nuts, started to settle down andabandon his nomadic life when, in Neolithictimes, he discovered how to sow the seeds ofgrasses and, in due time, reap a crop of ‘cerealgrains’. With this change in his way of life camethe beginnings of civilization which, in westernEurope, is based on a diet relying on wheat,wheaten flour, and the baked products made fromflour, the principal product being bread.The function of baking is to present cerealflours in an attractive, palatable and digestibleform.While wheat is the principal cereal used forbreadmaking, other cereals, particularly rye, arealso used to some extent. The first part of thischapter will consider breadmaking processes andbread in which wheat flour or meal is the solecereal. The use of other cereals will be discussedlater (p.
211).
Use of milled wheat products for bread
Breadis made
by
baking
a
dough
which
has
for its main ingredients wheaten flour, water,of discrete and separate particles, but thegluten is cohesive, forming a continuous three-dimensional structure which binds the flourparticles together in a ‘dough’. The glutenhas peculiar extensible properties: it can bestretched like elastic, and possesses a degreeof recoil or spring;
-
ir bubbles are folded into the dough. Duringthe subsequent handling of the dough thesebubbles divide or coalesce. Eventually thedough comes to resemble a foam, with thebubbles trapped in the gluten network;
-
nzymes in the yeast start to ferment thesugars present in the flour and, later, thesugars released by diastatic action of theamylases on damaged starch in the flour,breaking them down to alcohol and carbondioxide. The carbon dioxide gas mixes withthe
air
in
the bubbles
and
brings about expan-sion of the dough. “Bread is fundamentallyfoamed gluten” (Atkins, 1971).Three requirements in making bread fromwheat flour are formation of a gluten networkand the creation of air bubbles within it; theincorporation of carbon dioxide to turn the glutennetwork into a foam; and the development of theyeast
and
sa1t*
Other ingredients
which
may
be
added
inc1ude
flours
Of Other
cerea1sY
fat,
ma1t
rheological properties
of
the gluten
so
that itretains the carbon dioxide while allowing
expan-
flour, soya flour, yeast foods, emulsifiers, milkand milk products, fruit, gluten.When these ingredients are mixed in correctproportions, three processes commence:
-
he protein in the flour begins to hydrate, i.e.to combine with some of the water, to formgluten (cf. pp. 70 and 174). Flour consistssion of the dough; and, finally, the coagulationof the material by heating
it
in the oven
so
thatthe structure of the material is stabilized. Theadvantage of having an aerated, finely vesiculatedcrumb in the baked product is that it is easilymasticated.Corresponding with these requirements, there
191
 
192
TECHNOLOGY
OF
CEREALS
are three stages in the manufacture of bread:mixing and dough development, dough aeration,and oven baking. The method of dough develop-ment and aeration that has been customary sincethe time of the Pharaohs is panary fermentationby means of yeast.
Ingredients
Flour
Good breadmaking flour is characterized ashaving:
-
rotein which is adequate in quantity andwhich, when hydrated, yields gluten which issatisfactory in respect of elasticity, strengthand stability;
-
atisfactory gassing properties: the levels ofamylase activity and of damaged starch (cf.pp.
183, 185)
should be adequate to yieldsufficient sugars, through diastatic action, tosupport the activity of the yeast enzymesduring fermentation and proof;
-
atisfactory moisture content
-
ot higherthan about
14%
to permit safe storage, andsatisfactory colour, and should meet specifica-tions regarding bleach and treatment (cf.pp.
171-172).
These requirements are met by the type ofwheat called ‘strong’ (cf. pp.
81, 92, 174),
viz.wheat having a reasonably high protein content.Wherever possible, home-grown wheat is usedfor breadmaking, and this is the situation, forexample, in Canada and in the U.S.A., wheresuch strong wheats, e.g. CWRS, HRS, are readily
available.
In the U.K., however, the home-grown wheatis, or until recently was, characteristically weak,viz. of low protein content, and would not, byitself, yield flour from which bread, of the kindto which U.K. consumers are accustomed, couldbe made. It was therefore customary for flourmillers in the
U.K.
to mill breadmaking flourfrom a mixed grist of strong and weak wheats,the strong wheat component being imported,generally from Canada, and the weak componentbeing home-grown U.K. wheat. Until the early
1960s,
the average breadmaking grist in the U.K.
Composition
of
bread
wheat
grist
in
U
K
80
-
70
-
YO
40-
10
-
I
A
I
I I I
I
I
I
1w-i-r
I
I
I
I I I
AAAAAAJ@@@@@@@@@%
~~~~~~~:L+
_gt+
E-
PJ\@-\@&lG&’+V\Pdd-\@&l9,
‘\
O
Year
FIG
.1
Average composition
of
the bread wheat grist in the
U.K.
since
1973,
in terms
of
U.K.
wheat,other EC wheat, and non-EC wheat (data from MAFF, H-GCA, and NABIM).
 
BREAD-BAKING TECHNOLOGY
193
would consist of 60-70% of imported strong wheat in the U.K. bread-wheat grist has fallen fromplus 20-30% of weak home-grown wheat (with a about 70% in 1960 to about 15% in 1990 (with asmall proportion of ‘filler’ wheat of medium corresponding increase in the home-grown wheatstrength, cf. p. 87)
-
ee Fig. 8.1, yielding a white proportion), with a considerable saving in the costflour of about 12% protein content. of the raw material. By 1992, some millers wereThe imported Canadian wheat is more expen- supplying breadmaking flour milled entirely fromsive than the home-grown U.K. wheat and, in home-grown U.K. and EC wheats, with no non-consequence, there was a strong urge to decrease EC component, but with the addition of 2% orthe ratio of strong to weak wheat. This change perhaps 2.5% of vital gluten.was made possible in a number of ways, one of A similar reduction in the imported non-ECwhich was the advent of the CBP (cf. p. 203) (strong) wheat content of the breadmaking gristbecause, among other advantages, the CBP per- has also occurred in other countries.mitted the use of a flour of about 1% lower protein One possible complication associated with thecontent to produce bread of quality equivalent to lowering of the strong/weak wheat ratio in thethat produced by the BFP (cf. p. 201). bread grist is the reduced proportion of damagedAdditional impetus to reduce still further the starch in the flour because of the frequent associa-proportion of imported strong wheat in the bread tion of strength with hardness (as in the importedgrist followed the entry of the U.K. into the EC, Canadian wheat) and, conversely, of weaknessand the imposition of a heavy import levy, which with softness (as in the EC-grown wheats). It ishas run as high as &120-130 per tonne, on the desirable that the content of damaged starchcost of wheat imported from third (Le. non-EC) should be maintained at a reasonably high level,countries. Various measures have been adopted and this requirement can be met by adjustmentswhereby the proportion of home-grown (or EC- to the milling process (cf. p. 149). However, it isgrown) wheat in the breadmaking grist could be a fortunate coincidence that the two varieties offurther increased, while maintaining loaf quality. wheat classified by breadmaking quality andThey include:widely grown in the U.K. at the present time,Avalon and Mercia, both have a hard textured
-
reeding stronger wheats with higher yieldingendosperm, and thus go some way towardspotential for growing in the U.K. and otheravoiding this complication.EC countries. Examples of such promisingnew varieties are Avalon and Mercia. More-over, the considerable increase in the size of
Leavening
the U.R. wheat harvest in recent years hasprovided the flourmiller with the possibility Leavened baked goods are preferred in allof obtaining adequate supplies of these newer countries where wheat is available as a staple food.varieties of good breadmaking quality; Leavening can be achieved in several ways,
-
warding of remunerative premiums to growers including the following:for higher protein home-grown wheats whichare poorer yielders than low protein wheats;
-
se of vital gluten as a bread ingredient (cf.p. 195);
-
upplementation of flours from lower-proteinhome-grown wheats with air-classified highprotein fractions of flour (cf. p. 132);
-
se of high levels of fungal alpha-amylase (cf.p. 196).Figure 8.1 shows that the proportion of importednon-EC wheat (mostly Canadian CWRS wheat)
1.
Whisking egg into a foam with flour and otheringredients. This method is used in produc-tion of sponge and other cakes.2. Water vapour production as in Scandinavianflat breads and puff pastry.3. Yeast.
4.
Baking Powder.Yeast and baking powder are the most import-ant. Each is appropriate for its own range ofproducts, and in some cases, such as doughnuts,

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