are three stages in the manufacture of bread:mixing and dough development, dough aeration,and oven baking. The method of dough develop-ment and aeration that has been customary sincethe time of the Pharaohs is panary fermentationby means of yeast.
Good breadmaking flour is characterized ashaving:
rotein which is adequate in quantity andwhich, when hydrated, yields gluten which issatisfactory in respect of elasticity, strengthand stability;
atisfactory gassing properties: the levels ofamylase activity and of damaged starch (cf.pp.
should be adequate to yieldsufficient sugars, through diastatic action, tosupport the activity of the yeast enzymesduring fermentation and proof;
atisfactory moisture content
ot higherthan about
to permit safe storage, andsatisfactory colour, and should meet specifica-tions regarding bleach and treatment (cf.pp.
These requirements are met by the type ofwheat called ‘strong’ (cf. pp.
81, 92, 174),
viz.wheat having a reasonably high protein content.Wherever possible, home-grown wheat is usedfor breadmaking, and this is the situation, forexample, in Canada and in the U.S.A., wheresuch strong wheats, e.g. CWRS, HRS, are readily
In the U.K., however, the home-grown wheatis, or until recently was, characteristically weak,viz. of low protein content, and would not, byitself, yield flour from which bread, of the kindto which U.K. consumers are accustomed, couldbe made. It was therefore customary for flourmillers in the
to mill breadmaking flourfrom a mixed grist of strong and weak wheats,the strong wheat component being imported,generally from Canada, and the weak componentbeing home-grown U.K. wheat. Until the early
the average breadmaking grist in the U.K.
I I I
I I I
the bread wheat grist in the
wheat,other EC wheat, and non-EC wheat (data from MAFF, H-GCA, and NABIM).