XI.--Higher EducationXII.--Vocational TrainingXIII.--Education at Public ExpenseAppendix: DocumentsBibliographyIndexThe Education of the Negro Prior to 1861* * * * *CHAPTER IINTRODUCTIONBrought from the African wilds to constitute the laboring class ofa pioneering society in the new world, the heathen slaves had to betrained to meet the needs of their environment. It required littleargument to convince intelligent masters that slaves who had someconception of modern civilization and understood the language of theirowners would be more valuable than rude men with whom one could notcommunicate. The questions, however, as to exactly what kind oftraining these Negroes should have, and how far it should go, were tothe white race then as much a matter of perplexity as they are now.Yet, believing that slaves could not be enlightened without developingin them a longing for liberty, not a few masters maintained that themore brutish the bondmen the more pliant they become for purposes ofexploitation. It was this class of slaveholders that finally won themajority of southerners to their way of thinking and determined thatNegroes should not be educated.The history of the education of the ante-bellum Negroes, therefore,falls into two periods. The first extends from the time of theintroduction of slavery to the climax of the insurrectionary movementabout 1835, when the majority of the people in this country answeredin the affirmative the question whether or not it was prudent toeducate their slaves. Then followed the second period, when theindustrial revolution changed slavery from a patriarchal to aneconomic institution, and when intelligent Negroes, encouraged byabolitionists, made so many attempts to organize servile insurrectionsthat the pendulum began to swing the other way. By this time mostsouthern white people reached the conclusion that it was impossibleto cultivate the minds of Negroes without arousing overmuchself-assertion.