Analysis of Variance
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
At the end of this lesson, the participants should be able to :
discuss the concept of analysis of variance;
enumerate the basic assumptions of the analysis of variance technique; and
outline the analysis of variance table associated with the various experimental designs commonly used in rice research.
Frequently researchers are confronted with a situation where samples from several populations are obtained, for example yields of three different varieties of rice, and it is of interest to test the null hypothesis that the population means are all the same. Thetechnique used to make these tests is called the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). If thetreatments, rice varieties in this case, all had exactly the same population means andvariances then one would expect plots receiving different varieties to show the samevariability as plots receiving the same varieties. This variability being due to numerousnon-specific causes such as variable land, seed and cultivation practices. On the other hand if the varieties had different population means, but the same population variances,then one would expect the variability between plots with different varieties to be greater than that for plots with the same variety. Hence the idea of ANOVA is to comparevariability of plots receiving different treatments to that of plots receiving the sametreatments.The basic assumptions of the Analysis of Variance technique are :
the samples from each population are statistically independent
the populations all have same variances (populations are homoscedastic) but possiblydifferent means
the populations follow normal distributions
treatment effects are additive, i.e., means differ by additive amounts and not byMultiplicative factors.