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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

# Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

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Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

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02/27/2013

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Analysis of Variance
163
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
Learning Objective

At the end of this lesson, the participants should be able to :

discuss the concept of analysis of variance;

enumerate the basic assumptions of the analysis of variance technique; and

outline the analysis of variance table associated with the various experimental designs commonly used in rice research.

Introduction

Frequently researchers are confronted with a situation where samples from several populations are obtained, for example yields of three different varieties of rice, and it is of interest to test the null hypothesis that the population means are all the same. Thetechnique used to make these tests is called the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). If thetreatments, rice varieties in this case, all had exactly the same population means andvariances then one would expect plots receiving different varieties to show the samevariability as plots receiving the same varieties. This variability being due to numerousnon-specific causes such as variable land, seed and cultivation practices. On the other hand if the varieties had different population means, but the same population variances,then one would expect the variability between plots with different varieties to be greater than that for plots with the same variety. Hence the idea of ANOVA is to comparevariability of plots receiving different treatments to that of plots receiving the sametreatments.The basic assumptions of the Analysis of Variance technique are :

the samples from each population are statistically independent

the populations all have same variances (populations are homoscedastic) but possiblydifferent means

treatment effects are additive, i.e., means differ by additive amounts and not byMultiplicative factors.

164
Completely Randomized Design

Failure to satisfy one or more of these assumptions affects both the level of significanceand the sensitivity of the F-test in the Analysis of Variance.
Completely Randomized Design
A completely randomized design (CRD) is one where the t treatments are assignedcompletely at random so that each of r experimental unit has the same chance of receivingany one treatment. For the CRD, any difference amongst the experimental units receivingthe same treatment is considered as experimental error. In CRD the total variability in thedata, as measured by the total sum of squares (SS) is partitioned into:

sum of squares due to treatment (TrSS) - a measure of differences between treatmentmeans.

sum of squares due to experimental error (ESS) - a measure of differences inobservations within treatments which is due to experimental error.Hence, the following relationship may symbolically written as:TSS = TrSS + ESSThe analysis of variance table associated with a completely randomized design follows:
S V dF SS MS Fc
Treatment t - 1 TrSS TrMS = TrSS / (t - 1) TrMS / EMSError t (r - 1) ESS EMS = ESS / t (n - 1)Total tr - 1 TSSwhere TrMS is the estimate of the variability among treatments; while EMS is theestimate of the inherent variability within treatments.

Analysis of Variance
165
If the treatments have no different effects then, TrMS and EMS should be very similar. If they are not similar the observed difference must be caused by differences in treatmentmeans or treatment variances. If the variances are assumed to be constant, then it must bethe means which differ. Thus, it is clear that a test of the hypothesis of
no difference
intreatment means can be performed by comparing TrMS and EMS.A measure of the precision of treatment means is given by the standard error of a mean,SEM or the standard error of the difference between two means SED asExample 1Suppose an experiment has been set up with four replicates of three varieties and hadassessed 12 plots to obtain the following yields:Variety A Variety B Variety C3.8 4.3 4.14.5 5.0 4.33.8 4.5 4.73.9 5.0 4.9Mean 4.0 4.7 4.5Total 16.0 18.8 18.0To construct the ANOVA Table for this data set, the following computations are made:Total dF = (3 varieties)(4 replicates)-1 = 11Varieties dF = (3 varieties)-1 = 2Error dF = Total dF - Varieties dF = 9CF = (3.8 + 4.5 + ... + 4.9)
2
/ (3)(4) = 232.32TSS = (3.8
2
+ 4.5
2
+ ... + 4.9
2
) - 232.32 = 2.16TrSS = (16.0
2
+ 18.8
2
+ 18.0
2
) / 4 - 232.32 = 1.04

ESS = TSS - TrSS = 1.12

/EMSSEM
=
/EMS2SED
=