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BhnREBTselfesteem

BhnREBTselfesteem

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Cognitive Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
ALBERT ELLIS ; Psychotherapist who preached a rational, behavioural approach http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P2-7533302.htmlCOUNSELING IN SCHOOLS. A RATIONAL EMOTIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY (REBT) BASED INTERVENTION - A PILOTSTUDY –
Assessing self-concept in children: Variationsacross self-concept domains
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Multidimensional models of 
self 
, emphasizing variations in
self 
-perceptionsacross areas of one's life, have led to new, domain-specific
self 
-reportmeasures. Two of the most widely used multidimensional
self 
-
concept
questionnaires were compared in Study 1 in a sample of 277 preadolescents. The two measures were highly correlated and comparable in reliability,stability, subscale interrelations, and associations with others' evaluations. InStudy 2 a wider variety of 
self 
-assessments (interviews, questionnaires,
self 
-ratings) across domains were compared in a sample of 161 preadolescents.Results indicated that the correspondence among different
self 
-assessmentapproaches as well as between
self 
and others' perceptions varied as afunction of the domain tapped. The observed domain variation may relate tothe type of information children use to evaluate their competencies acrossdomains.For decades, psychologists have attempted to devise reliable and validmeans of assessing childrens'
concept
of 
self 
. Despite these efforts, theassessment of the
self 
-system has remained an elusive task. In her criticalreviews of this literature, Wylie (1961; 1974; 1979; 1989) has repeatedlycautioned researchers about the problems inherent in attempting to assessthe
self 
. Nevertheless, efforts have continued in this regard.With the resurgence of interest in the
self 
-system in the late 1970s and early1980s (see Harter, 1983; Leahy, 1985; Suls & Greenwald, 1985) came anotable shift from emphasis on the
self 
as a generalized, unitary construct toincreased recognition that
self 
-perceptions vary across the domains of one'slife (Damon & Hart, 1982; Harter, 1982, 1983; Marsh, Smith, & Barnes, 1983;Shavelson, Hubner, & Stanton, 1976). Consistent with a multidimensionalview of 
self 
, researchers devised a new wave of domain-specific
self 
-reportinstruments to assess children's
self 
-
concept
within particular content
 
areas, in addition to general
self 
-worth (e.g., Harter, 1982; 1985; Marsh etal., 1983; see Byrne, 1996; Wylie, 1989, for reviews). The psychometricquality of these multidimensional measures has been well documented(Byrne, 1996; Wylie, 1989), but the area is still plagued with concerns abouthow to best tap children's
self 
-perceptions and what different measures tellus about children's
self 
-knowledge.In particular, little is known about the correspondence among domain-specific
self 
-
concept
data gathered with different methods and measures. Althougha few studies (to be reviewed) have compared the most commonly usedmultidimensional
self 
-
concept
measures, data are lacking on the stability of domain-specific measures of 
self 
and on the relations between domain-specific
self 
-assessments and others' impressions of the child within thosedomains. Such information has practical implications for researchersconcerned with instrument selection as well as conceptual implicationsregarding the nature of children's
self 
-knowledge. Do children seethemselves as others see them or are their
self 
-perceptions distorted oridiosyncratic? Are inconsistencies more likely in some domains than inothers? Is there a systematic pattern to these inconsistencies? To address these issues, two studies were conducted to evaluate the utilityand comparability of domain-specific evaluations of 
self 
amongpreadolescent, elementary school-age children. In the first study, two of themost widely used multidimensional measures of children's
self 
-
concept
werecompared in terms of reliability, validity, and stability, as well ascorrespondence across common domains. In the second study, children's
self 
-perceptions in four major areas (peer relations, schoolwork, appearance,and physical/athletic ability) were further examined to determine (a) thecorrespondence among various types of domain-specific,
self 
-reportapproaches (questionnaires, ratings, interview data), (b) the correspondencebetween
self 
and others' perceptions of the child's performance in thosedomains, and (c) the information children report using to evaluatethemselves in each domain.STUDY 1 Two of the most widely used multidimensional measures of children's
self 
-
concept
are the
Self 
-Description Questionnaire (SDQ-1) developed by Marshand his colleagues (Marsh, 1988; Marsh et al., 1983) and the
Self 
-PerceptionProfile for Children (SPPC) developed by Harter (1982, 1985). Both werecreated for use with middle to later elementary children, Grades 3/4 to 6,ages 8-12 years. In addition, both scales demonstrate excellent psychometricqualities (see Byrne, 1996; Wylie, 1989). There is considerable overlapregarding the areas tapped by the two scales, with each assessing thedomains of academic competence, physical/athletic competence, peerrelations, and appearance, as well as overall
self 
-worth. In addition, the SPPCassesses perceived behavioral conduct, whereas the SDQ-1 assesses parentrelations and provides for separate evaluations of competence inmathematics and reading.
 
An important distinction between the two measures involves the wording of items and the response format employed. The SDQ-1 provides children with aseries of statements (76 items) about their competency (abilities) and affect(liking, interest) in various domains (e.g., "t am good at school subjects," "Ilook forward to all school subjects," see Marsh, this volume, for a discussionof the competence/affect distinction). For each statement children indicate ona 5-point scale the degree to which the statement is true of themselves.Although one negatively-- worded item is included for each domain as aresponse check, each subscale score is based on a sum of eight positively-worded items. The SPPC provides students with a series of logically-opposedstatements (36 items, 6 items per subscale) regarding competency in aparticular domain (e.g., "Some kids feel that they are very good at theirschool work, BUT other kids worry about whether or not they can do theschoolwork assigned to them"). The child must decide (a) which statementbest describes him/herself and (b) whether the chosen statement is sort of orreally true for them. The format was designed to minimize socially desirableresponding.In at least three studies children's responses to the SDQ-1 and the SPPC havebeen compared (Byrne & Schneider, 1988; Marsh, 1990; Marsh & MacDonald-Holmes, 1990). Across studies, the construct validity of both measures wasverified by confirmatory factor analyses. Marsh and MacDonald-Holmes(1990) also provide support for the convergent and discriminant validity of both instruments using multitrait, multimethod analyses and found the scalesto be comparable in terms of internal consistency (coefficient alpha = .82 to.93 for SDQ-1 subscales, and .81 to .86 for SPPC subscales). With regard toconcurrent validity, significant correlations were found between social
self 
-
concept
on the SPPC and peer assessments of sociability/leadership (Byrne& Schneider, 1988) and between academic
self 
-
concept
on both the SDQ-1and the SPPC and teacher evaluations of achievement (Marsh & MacDonald--Holmes, 1990). Importantly, significant, positive correlations were observedacross the SPPC and SDQ-1 for scores in comparable domains, ranging from.54 to .86 for Grade 5 to 8 students (Byrne & Schneider, 1988) and from .56to .68 for Grade 5 students (Marsh & MacDonald-- Holmes, 1990). These data support previous reports of the psychometric quality of the twoscales and further suggest that, despite format and item variations, these twomeasures yield similar estimates of 
self 
-
concept
in specific (comparable)domains. Study 1 is a replication and extension of these findings regardingthe comparability of the scales in a Canadian sample of fifth and sixthgraders. As in prior studies, the two instruments were compared in terms of (a) subscale interrelations, (b) internal reliability (Cronbach a), and (c)correspondence between scores obtained on comparable subscales.Extending previous research, we examined the stability or test-retestreliability of subscale scores over a 1-week period, and evaluated thecorrespondence of 
self 
-reports with teacher and peer assessments in eachdomain. Although peer and teacher evaluations are often used as relevantvalidity criteria, such comparisons generally have not been conducted acrossnumerous domains.

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