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artikel matematik

artikel matematik

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Published by rizaldpli

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Published by: rizaldpli on Nov 11, 2010
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10/05/2013

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Wlqb Z}lp
#hbq klvabqkz ‚ nemz |kmlq : ibk}cz b`m, d`` b}clq nemz zcb|`m z}dq} d}}clHeqz} Z}lp% ‚ mb} jdqmz }cd} dql xlqu)xlqu `dqfl7 4<
›s4<›, ve}c
a`djn, xlqu ab`m 
 mb}z 4+<
› ek medil}lq+ Alf
ek ve}c bkl jdqm, zcbv e} hbq 4?)4< zljbkmz dkm cb`m e}dazb`|}l`u z}e`` }b fexl cei d jcdkjl }b hbj|z bk e}+ Bk d heqz} mdu zcbv ‐bkl’ mb}jdqm 4? }eilz, bk zljbkm zcbv ‐}vb’ mb} jdqm 4? }eilz> pqbjllm hbq 6 mduz ve}cmehhlqlk} jdqmz 4? }eilz ldjc mdu+ Qlpld} hbq }cl hb``bvekf }vb vllnz7 zb, hbq }clheqz} }cqll vllnz ub| zcbv ‐bkl’ mb} bk Ibkmduz, ‐}vb’ bk ]|lzmduz… Bkvlln =7 jcbzl mb} jdqmz 3)4= dkm juj`l ldjc bh }cli 4? }eilz d mdu hbq }clhb``bvekf }cqll vllnz #jdqm ‐lefc}’ bk Ibkmduz, jdqm ‐kekl’ bk ]|lzmduz, l}j+%Jbk}ek|l ve}c }cez pd}}lqk |k}e` }eku ekhdk} ez zllekf ml}de` jbkzez}lk}`u dkm ldze`u#dqb|km }vl`xl vllnz bq `d}lq%+ Jcbzl }cl jbqqlj} }eil bh }cl mdu7 vclk }cl adauez ek d fbbm ibbm+ Bkjl ub| qld`ewl ub|q ekhdk} jdk zll }cl ml}de` j`ldq`u, pqbjllm}b z}lp bkl+1+
 
Heqz} Z}lp ‚ T|dk}e}u Qljbfke}ebk
 ]ldjcekf ub|q jce`m }b }b plqjlexl dj}|d` k|ialqz, vcejc dql }q|l xd`|l bh k|ilqd`z ‚ < mb} jdqmz 4)4??+ 1 zl}z bh < jdqmz ldjc, }cqll }eilz d mdu ldjc zl}+:+
 
Zljbkm Z}lp ‚ Lt|d}ebkz
 Z}dq} dh}lq ub|―xl zcbvlm heqz} 1? jdqmz hbqHeqz} Z}lp+Mbk―} }lz}, jbk}ek|l ek}qbm|jekf klv t|dk}e}elz, e+l+ mb} jdqmz, #|k}e` ub| qldjc4??%, dkm dmm zlzzebkz ve}c zeip`l lt|d}ebkz7 1.19=, <.44948+ Dxbempqlmej}da`l lt|d}ebkz7 4.19:> 4.:9=> 4.=9<+ Dh}lq }vb vllnz bh mehhlqlk}dmme}ebk lt|d}ebkz, mb z|a}qdj}ebkz, hb``bvlm au i|`}ep`ejd}ebk dkm mexezebk #d}}vb vlln ek}lqxd`z bh : zlzzebkz bh lt|d}ebkz plq mdu%+=+
 
]ceqm Z}lp ‚ _qba`li Zb`xekf
 Ub| cdxl jbip`l}lmHeqz} Z}lp#zcbvekf mb} jdqmz%, dkmHeqz} Z}lp#zeip`l Lt|d}ebkz%+_qbfqlzz bk}b ibql zbpcez}ejd}lm }cqll z}lp lt|d}ebkz, l+f7 1Ö1s:941+‐Ub| dql z}e`` ls}qdbqmekdqu fexekf dkm jbip`l}l`u kbk)mlidkmekf’ #FM, Id}c,p+ 41<%) ub| cdxlk―} mbkl dku }lz}ekf+ ‐]cl _|qpbzl bh pqba`li)zb`xekfbppbq}|ke}u ez hbq d }cl jce`m }b al da`l }b mlibkz}qd}l vcd} cl nkbvz eh cl vezclz}b mb zb+ E} ez lsdj}`u }cl
bppbze}l
bh }cl }lz}+’ #FM, Id}c, p+ 418%+ Ub| jdk mb e}d} }cl lkm bh }cl zlzzebk+
b
 
Cb`m }vb jdqmz dkm dzn vclql ez 11 #d`vduz bhhlq bp}ebkz$%‐]cez ez d fbbm bppbq}|ke}u hbq d adau }b `bbn d} bq }b|jc }lc jdqm eh clvezclz }b mb zb+’ Eh cl mblz, idnl d aef h|zz+ Eh cl mblzk―}, zeip`u zdu,‐]cez ez :1
› dkm, ‐]cez ez heh}llk+’ #FM, Id}c, p+ 416%+
b
 
Fexl d zeip`l lt|d}ebk dkm }clk cb`m }vb mb} jdqmz hbq cei }b jcbzl }clqlz|`} bh }cl lt|d}ebk+ Dfdek, d`vduz bhhlq bp}ebkz, dkm eh ub|q jce`mmblzk―} vdk} }b zcbv d jdqm, zeip`u dkm |pald} zdu e} ub|qzl`h+Dh}lq d hlv vllnz bh }clzl lt|d}ebkz, idnl }cli lxlk ibql h|k7 jbiaekldmme}ebk dkm z|a}qdj}ebk, i|`}ep`ejd}ebk dkm mexezebk, a|} mbk―} ies }cl pdeqz l+f+=?.4<):?91<, kb} =.1'6+Dh}lq d hlv vllnz, dmm dkb}clq }lqi }b }cl lt|d}ebkz7 <8.1?)=)=983+Ub| jdk h|q}clq pqbfqlzz bk}b7
 
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Zlt|lkjlz=+
 
Fqld}lq }clk dkm `lzz }clk<+
 
Lt|d`e}elz dkm eklt|d`e}elz8+
 
K|ialq plqzbkd`e}u6+
 
Hqdj}ebkz3+
 
Zeip`l d`flaqd<+
 
Hb|q}c Z}lp ‚ K|ilqd` Qljbfke}ebk
 44Ö44 pbz}lq abdqm ve}c k|ilqd`z vqe}}lk ek `dqfl, qlm, hl`})}epplm idqnlq7 8
› }d``
au :
› veml+
 Jbiaekl k|ialqz ve}c mb}z7 41 fqld}lq }clk mb} jdqm bh 6> mb} jdqm bh 41941#k|ialq%8+
 
Heh}c Z}lp ‚ Lt|d}ebkz ve}c k|ilqd`z
 Idnl 43
›s=› pbz}lq abdqm jdqmz hbq lt|d}ebkz ve}c k|ilqd`z7 1<.<
9:?>44<Ö:s1Ö< kb} lt|d`z 1,<??> =<3 mexemlm au 1 iek|z 115+Fb }b }cl }bp 
Qlzb|qjlz
 
Cbv }b ]ldjc ub|q Adau Id}c Ne}7 jb``lj}ebk bh mb} jdqmz, }cd} fl}z ub| }cqb|fcZ}lpz 4):+ Jdqmz hbq lt|d`z bq kb} lt|d`z, bq hbq k|ilqd`z ub| cdxl }b mb auub|qzl`h+
 
_lq`d Dmdiz, }cl J`dzzejd` Ibiiu, cdz d _bvlq_bek} pqlzlk}d}ebkz ve}c mb}z,mb}z dkm k|ialqz dkm lxlk zbil lt|d}ebkz ‚ ub| jdk pqek} e} bk d jdqm z}bjn pdplq, bq lxlk zcbv }cli bk }cl jbip|}lq7]ldjcekf T|dk}e}u+ Clq pqlzlk}d}ebkzjdk cl`p ub| jbxlq }cl z}lpz 4)= dkm dql dazb`|}l`u HQLL$ ]cdknz, _lq`d, hbqdkb}clq vbkmlqh|` gba$$
 
Ub|q Zidq} Adau Klvabqk _qbfqdi Ne}7 jb``lj}ebk bh eke}ed` jdqmz hbq }cl ekhdk},ekj`|mekf 4? mb} jdqmz #}cb|fc ub| pqbada`u kllm ibql }clk }cd} ‚ d} `ldz} 14$%,}cd} fl}z ub| }cqb|fc Z}lp ?+
 
HQLLId}}clv C|mzbk―z Mbidk p`|fekhbq Iejqbzbh} _bvlq_bek}7 }lqqehej p`|fek}cd} d``bvz ub| }b fb }cqb|fc Z}lp 4, 1, zbil bh Z}lp : #bk`u }vb z}lp lt|d}ebkz74<'19:?%, z}lp =, dkm zbil bh Z}lp < #dfdek, bk`u }vb z}lp lt|d}ebkz dkmk|ialqz dql kb} }cd} aef%+ _`|fek d`zb jbk}dekz d qdkmbiewlq hbq ub|qLkjuj`bplmej nkbv`lmfl vbqmz dkm lxlk d vbqm flklqd}bq+ E plqzbkd``u jdk―}eidfekl iu zbk―z pqbfqdi ve}cb|} }cez vbkmlqh|` p`|fek+
 
_qbmefu Id}c"Qldmlq hbq Ekhdk}z dkm ]bmm`lqz auFllkbfll7 }cez ez dkeklsplkzexl pqbfqdi }cd} cl`pz ub| }cqb|fc z}lpz 4 dkm :+ E} mblz fl} ub| d `e}}`lh|q}clq }clk Id}}―z p`|fek ‚ e} d``bvz : dkm = z}lp lt|d}ebkz #41"8Ö:<96?%, e}d``bvz z}|mlk} idkdflilk}, e} qlilialqz dkm qliekmlqz ub| }b zcbv }clpqlzlk}d}ebkz jlq}dek k|ialq bh }eilz plq mdu, }l``z ub| cbv idku `lzzbkl}}lz dql`lh} hbq }cd} mdu+ Zeie`dq`u }b Mbidk, bkjl ub| fl} }b lt|d}ebkz, e} g|z} }cqbvz d}eku pbp |p vekmbv ve}c }cl lt|d}ebk, zcbvekf bk`u }cl qlz|`} mb} jdqm bk }clzjqllk+ Kb} adm, a|} E vezc e} jb|`m dj}|d``u bhhlq }cl lk}eql pqbfqdi7 eklt|d`e}elz,zlt|lkjlz, l}j+ E} cdz k|ialqz, a|} }clu dql zb zid``… dkm E cdxlk―} mezjbxlqlm
 
dku vduz }b lk`dqfl k|ialqz, bq cbv }b idnl }cli qlm #eh ub| cdxl, p`ldzljbiilk} al`bv bqlide`il meqlj}`u$% E}―z d pe}u, }cd} kbabmu mblz e}$ Bk }clb}clq zeml, zdil JM jbk}dekz _qbmefu Qldmlq ‚ zeie`dq zbh}vdql }b }ldjc ub|q nem}b qldm #zll ibql dab|} e} d}]ldjc Ub|q Jce`m ve}c I|`}eilmed%+
 
B|qLkjuj`bplmej Nkbv`lmfl Id}czlj}ebk jbk}dekz zbil pqlzlk}d}ebkz #lxlkve}c zb|kmz% ek Lkf`ezc, Q|zzedk dkm Zpdkezc }cd} jdk dem ub|q id}c `ldqkekf dkmidnl e} ibql h|k+Fb }b }cl }bp 

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