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C2 VANGCM- 1982

C2 VANGCM- 1982

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Published by Vincent J. Cataldi
C2.1 GCM OVERVIEW
VANGCM, the Gateway Control Manager, is the central access connection and gateway switching component for VANSYS and is responsible for managing VANSYS on physical, data link, network, transport, and presentation levels, thus performing functions of OSI layers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6.

GCM is designed to interconnect up to 50,000 concurrent public site and residential users through an extended network of pro¬cessors and shared peripheral devices. It provides access to end users and multiple processing environments via various physical mediums such as twisted pairs, baseband coaxial, broadband coaxial, or optical fibers- various typologies such as star, ring, loop, or common bus, and various access methods such as logical bus grants or token passing. The various com¬binations of these factors alter the cost of the communications link between application processes, its flexibility, its expan¬sibility, and the complexity of its data flow.

GCM employs time-division multiplexing, specifically packet interleaved statistical multiplexing, to provide virtual call connection. This permits load balancing of System resources to maximize bandwidth utilization. Internally, VANSYS uses X.25/HDLC which allows a maximum of 256 logical channels. Ini¬tially 56 Kb/s lines will provide the backbone links but VANSYS also can support T-O lines (O.54 Mb/s). System growth is a¬chieved by expanding channel capacity and/or bandwidth.
C2.1 GCM OVERVIEW
VANGCM, the Gateway Control Manager, is the central access connection and gateway switching component for VANSYS and is responsible for managing VANSYS on physical, data link, network, transport, and presentation levels, thus performing functions of OSI layers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6.

GCM is designed to interconnect up to 50,000 concurrent public site and residential users through an extended network of pro¬cessors and shared peripheral devices. It provides access to end users and multiple processing environments via various physical mediums such as twisted pairs, baseband coaxial, broadband coaxial, or optical fibers- various typologies such as star, ring, loop, or common bus, and various access methods such as logical bus grants or token passing. The various com¬binations of these factors alter the cost of the communications link between application processes, its flexibility, its expan¬sibility, and the complexity of its data flow.

GCM employs time-division multiplexing, specifically packet interleaved statistical multiplexing, to provide virtual call connection. This permits load balancing of System resources to maximize bandwidth utilization. Internally, VANSYS uses X.25/HDLC which allows a maximum of 256 logical channels. Ini¬tially 56 Kb/s lines will provide the backbone links but VANSYS also can support T-O lines (O.54 Mb/s). System growth is a¬chieved by expanding channel capacity and/or bandwidth.

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Published by: Vincent J. Cataldi on Nov 12, 2010
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C 2 V AN G C M , G A T E W A Y C O N T R O L M AN AG E R
G C M O V E R V I E W C 2 . 1
C 1 5 S U B S Y S T E M S A N D M O D U L E S C 2 . 2C 1 5 G C M L I N E C O N T R O L L E R C 2 . 2 aP h y s i c a l D r i v e r C2. 2a1D a t a L i n k D r i v e r = = = = = = = = = = C 2 . 2 a 2N e t w o r k D r i v e r = = = = = = = = = = = C 2 . 2 a 3C 1 9 G C M T R A F F I C C O N T R O L L E R C 2 . 2 bI n p u t P r o c e s s o r .................................................................. C 2 . 2 b 1O u t P u t P r o c e s s o r C 2 . 2 b 2V i r t u a l C i r c u i t D r i v e r ( G C M V C D ) C 2 . 2 b 3V i r t u a l C i r c u i t M a n a g e r C 2 . 2 b 3 . 1R o u t i n g P r o c e s s o r C 2 . 2 b 3 . 2S w i t c h i n g P r o c e s s o r C 2 . 2 b 3 . 3T r a f f i c M o n i t o r C 2 . 2 b 3 . 4T i m e r / A u d i t U t i l i t y R o u t i n e s C 2 . 2 b 3 . 5T r a f f i c C o n t r o l T a b l e s & S t o r a g e . . C 2 . 2 b 4B U F F E R / B U F D I R . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C 2 . 2 b 4 . 1Q U E U E / Q U E D I R ..................................................C 2 . 2 b 4 . 2F I F O - I N / F I F O - O U T ...........................................C 2 . 2 b 4 . 3U S E R ..............................................................................C 2 . 2 b 4 . 4L I N E ................................................................................C 2 . 2 a 4
C 2 4 G C M P R E S E N T A T I O N C O N T R O L L E R C 2 . 2 c
 
C2 - VANGCM: Gateway Control Manager
C2.1 GCM OVERVIEW
VANGCM, the Gateway Control Manager, is the central access connection and gateway switchingcomponent for VANSYS and is responsible for managing VANSYS on physical, data link, network, transport,and presentation levels, thus performing functions of OSI layers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6.GCM is designed to interconnect up to 50,000 concurrent public site and residential users through anextended network of processors and shared peripheral devices. It provides access to end users and multipleprocessing environments via various physical mediums such as twisted pairs, baseband coaxial,broadband coaxial, or optical fibers- various typologies such as star, ring, loop, or common bus, andvarious access methods such as logical bus grants or token passing. The various combinations of thesefactors alter the cost of the communications link between application processes, its flexibility, its expan-sibility, and the complexity of its data flow.
GCM employs time-division multiplexing, specifically packet-interleaved statistical multiplexing, toprovide virtual call connection. This permits load balancing of System resources to maximizebandwidth utilization. Internally, VANSYS uses X.25/HDLC which allows a maximum of 256logical channels. Initially 56 Kb/s lines will provide the backbone links but VANSYS also can supportT-O lines (O.54 Mb/s). System growth is achieved by expanding channel capacity and/orbandwidth.
The entire GCM system is memory resident with disk-based I/O used only for initialization and periodicupdating. The system contains both reentrant task images and updatable tables: task images are coded in anassembler language for greatest utilization of system-memory resources; disk-based tables are updatedduring low load periods from memory-resident tables.GCM has three major functions which it performs via three sub-systems. it manages I/O from a serializedsignal through bit, frame, and message levels via GCM Line Controller it provides message and circuitswitching via GCM Traffic Controller and it provides presentation level services via GCM PresentationController.
ProtocolsBoth international and de facto protocols which govern Gateway functions are still evolving and areexpected to continue to evolve for several years. In order for VANSYS to provide universal access it mustsupport both the international and de facto standards. At this time international standards have been finalizedonly for line control protocols and some presentation protocols.
Line control protocols involve OSI Levels 1, 2, and 3. ISO has standardized these network specific protocols throughadoption of 3 levels of Recommendation X.25. These protocols construct messages from signals directed to I/Oreceivers and verify the end-to-end accuracy of these messages. Although the international Standard is a bit-orientedprotocol, sometimes called a 'bit stuffing' protocol, GCM Line Controller must support bit-oriented, byte-oriented, andcharacter-oriented protocols.Traffic control protocols involve OSI Layer 4 for which ISO has not yet standardized protocols but has made availabledraft proposals DIS 8072 and DIS 8073 which respectively specify transport service and transport protocols.Some presentation protocols, Level 6 protocols, are already standardized while others are still under study; these aredefined in ISO/TC97/SC16/N1667.C2.2 GCM SUBSYSTEMS MODULES
GCM operates via three peer subsystems. 1) Line Controller which, under Traffic Controller direction,configures both ends of the logical connection, 2) Traffic Controller which, under NCM direction, providesswitching to interconnect logical channels of physical interfaces, and 3) Presentation Controller which directlysupports application entities with commonly-used interpretation routines.
 
C2.2a LINE CONTROLLER SUBSYSTEMGCM Line Controller functions within a dedicated I/O processor interconnected to the GCM central processor via twointelligent channels, one dedicated to inbound I/O and one to outbound I/O. This permits concurrent transfer ofinbound or outbound I/O and routing and switching services performed by GCM Traffic Controller.Line Controller is primarily responsible for receiving and
'
transmitting messages to/from GC& for interpreting inboundsignals into characters of a standardized format, combining the characters to form a message, and verifying the accuracyof the message. It manages I/O from a serialized signal through the bit, frame, and packet levels, assembling anddisassembling messages and transferring them to and from Traffic Controller modules, GCM INPUT and GCM OUTPUT.
Receiving a message involves composing characters from signals transmitted to the I/O receiver, verifying theend-to-end accuracy of the characters, combining the characters to form messages, and placing the message ina FIFO buffer (FIFO-IN) to allow GCM INPUT to access these messages.
Transmitting a message involves GCM OUTPUT removing it from temporary storage in a FIFO buffer (FIFO-OUT) byconverting i t into characters, serializing the characters onto a specified physical line, and maintaining an end-to-endaccuracy of the transmission.GCM Line Controller controls line characteristics through interruption of logical line drivers which handle protocols ofOSI Levels O, 2, & 3, i.e., protocols that govern the physical technology-dependent network components. A highpercentage of communications transfers are serviced via Recommendation X.25 or £NA.Universal accessibility to VANSYS requires that GCM Line Controller support bit-oriented, byte-oriented, and character-oriented communications protocols. Characters are received through physical interfaces in a synchronous,asynchronous, or isochronous fashion via a parallel or serial link with full or half duplex and point-to-point or multi-pointlinks.GCM Line Controller functions satisfy physical network con-figurations and therefore vary with the network supportedbut typically include character serialization, framing synchronization, special character recognition, charactertransmission or reception, and error handling.Line characteristics are established to support a specified network typology. Cross-matching both sides of theconnection to permit connectivity between two logical circuits requires that GCM Line Controller have ability to select theproper line characteristics.
A status word is initialized to specify the proper combinations of line drivers and thus line characteristics.Flexibility of a programmable status word permits interruption of any software or firmware component storedin the I/o processor, thus enabling the system to perform highly-specialized protocol conversions. Thesethree lowest OSI layers are network-specific, configured to conform to a particular communications network typology.
LINE CONTROLLER FACILITIES; GCM Line Controller operates via three driver modules: 1) Physical Driver whichmanages physical protocols at the bit level, 2) Data Link Driver which manages data link protocols at the framelevel, and 3) Network Driver which manages network protocols at the message level. These three drivers can beprovided by a single firmware component and are then referred to as a group as the X.25 Driver or SNA Driver,depending on the standard used.GCM Line Controller facilities also include memory sockets, tables, and secondary registers to provide a basicprogram-selectable data communications interface, full modem control, and statistics. Line tables and registersspecify how to convert characters into messages and perform block mode error testing and retransmission andinclude: O) Receiver Status Register, 2) Receiver Buffer Register, 3) Transmitter Status Register, 4) TransmitterBuffer Register, and 5) Parameter Status Register.C2.2a1 Physical Driver ModuleGCM Physical Manager handles physical level protocols, those which govern interconnection of various physicalmediums by de-fining mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural characteristics required to establish,maintain, and release physical connections between data link entities. Physical protocols place the propersynchronizing preamble on the line, serialize the frame, and transmit it.

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