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antena kaleng

antena kaleng

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Published by A Ropei Ropei

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: A Ropei Ropei on Nov 12, 2010
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02/19/2011

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A "Cheap & Easy" 2.4GHz Feed
By James H. Wolfe, KI7CX - EMAILKI7CX@qsl.net 
When the AATV group in Phoenix added a 2.4 GHz FM input to the ATV repeater, it provided hams a way to geton ATV "cheap and easy". The 2.4 GHz Wavecom
types of audio/video transmitter/receiver sets are certainly areasonably priced unit for ATV use. The transmitters are easily modified for more power, and kits and add-ons areshowing up to boost the power even more. The only thing that seemed to be lacking was an inexpensive antenna.We know that when frequencies get above about 900 MHz, a parabolic dish is the real ticket for maximum gain. At2.4 GHz, it is easy to get 20 to 25 dbi or more with a dish & feed that is manageable in size. Occasionally I haveseen 16" to 20" inch obsolete HBO
type dishes at hamfest’s and recently the larger Primestar 
and other digitalTV dishes are showing up.We also know that a parabolic dish is not frequency dependent. It is the feed for the dish that must be constructed for a specific frequency range. We also found that we could home brew a feed using common materials.Here is a "cheap and easy" circular waveguide feed that can be built for the 2.4 GHz ATV band. While it is not anultimate ATV DX antenna, it is simple to construct, affordable, broadbanded and has about 10dbi gain right out of the can!
Required Materials
1.(1) Tuna can , 3.25"D x 1.45"L2.(1) Tall bean can, 3.25"D x 5.70"L3.(1) Chassis connector of your choosing: SMA, TNC, BNC, or type N. (UHF connectors don’t do well atthese frequencies)4.(1) 3/32" tube or #10 copper wire 1.125"L5.(1) Candy or Cookie tin, 5"D x 1.5"L
Construction
Solder the open ends of the two cans together to form a 7.15" tall cylinder. After soldering the cans together simplyuse a can-opener to remove the end of the bean can.Measure 1.82" (46.21mm or 1-13/32") from the closed end of the can. (Measure inside the can to the open end andtransfer this measurement to the outside). This is the center of the probe, (chassis connector). Drill a hole largeenough for the insulated portion of the chassis connector to pass through.Solder a piece of 3/32" tube or #10 wire to the center conductor of the chassis connector, creating a probe 1.125" or 1-1/8" long. Solder the chassis connector in place. The body of the chassis connector remains outside the can. The probe extends into the can and remains isolated from it. (This is a driven element, or a waveguide quarter waveantenna at 2.4 GHz.) We now have a complete circular waveguide feed that can be used as a stand-alone antenna.
The Scalar Ring
While an open ended circular waveguide makes a simple feed for a parabolic dish, the illumination pattern is not asideal as it first appears. We have too much energy in the center and too little at the edge. A satellite televisionantenna feed uses a unit made up of a series of shallow cavity rings surrounding the waveguide. This is known as aChaparral
feed and it is so named for the originator. The Chaparral feed alters the illumination pattern andimproves the efficiency of the feed. This type of feed is also well suited to the small HBO dishes with f/D in the
 
range of 0.35 to 0.45. When scaled to our 2.4 GHz feed, the first of these rings is 5" in Diameter and 1-1/2" deep.For a larger dish application, additional concentric rings would be used. We used only one ring to avoid blocking toomuch of our small center fed dish.Cut the Candy or Cookie tin down to a 1.5" depth to create the scalar ring.Draw two concentric target circles on the bottom of this shallow can, the first a 2" diameter bull’s-eye and thesecond 3.25" diameter.Cut out the 2" bull’s-eye to make a hole in the bottom center of the canCut from the edge of the 2" hole to slightly past the 3.25" circle a series of ¼" wide ‘teeth’ all the way around.Bend these teeth at the 3.25" circle away from the bottom of the can 90 degrees. This forms the scalar ring for thefeed.Slip the scalar ring onto the feed. This will need to be adjusted in or out for maximum gain. After fine-tuning, thescalar ring should be fastened or soldered in place.
Mounting
The position of the scalar ring is relative to the f/D ratio, or focal length to Diameter ratio of the dish. The focallength or position of the feed horn is easy to calculate. Here is a quick primer to determine the characteristics of around parabolic dish.¹ The focal length is simply the Diameter squared and divided by sixteen times the depth at thecenter. To determine the f/D ratio simply divide the focal length by the dish diameter. Here are two examples. Oneof my HBO dishes is 18" in diameter. With a straight edge across the dish, it measures 2.5" deep at the center.(fl=D²/16d) The focal length is 18
18=324, 16
2.5=40, 324/40 or 8.1", and the f/D ratio is 8.1"/18", or 0.45.Another dish is 20"x 3.5" which has a f/D of 0.35 and a focal length of 7.14". In these examples the 18" dish wouldhave the mouth of the feed positioned approximately 7-3/4" from the center of the dish. (The feed point is slightlyinside the open end of the waveguide.)The 20" dish would have the feed mounted approximately 6-3/4" from the center of the dish. The position of thescalar ring will differ between the two dishes due to the difference in f/D ratio. The position will also have a veryslight variation between transmit and receive.To use the scalar ring and the feed horn as an antenna, (no dish), position the back of the scalar ring approximately1" from the mouth. This will place the outer rim of the scalar ring slightly forward of the open end of the feed. Fine-tune the position from this point. When mounting the feed on a dish, peak the feed horn, then add and adjust thescalar ring. Note: Polarisation is determined by the probe orientation. I.e.: Horizontal probe is horizontally polarised and avertical probe is vertically polarised.
 
"Microwave Mike", N7QYH used aHewlett Packard 8353B network analyser with an S-Parameter test set to plot the return loss, or SWR for the feed.
 

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