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Oracle Interview

Oracle Interview

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Published by: Vijay Tilak Vangaveti on Nov 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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http://www.quest.com/presentations/A...0Internals.pdf******http://www.sioug.si/predavanja/97/platinum/sld012.htm***1.What is an Oracle Instance?
Instance is a combination of memory structure and process structure.Memory structure is SGA and Process structure is background processes.
2. What information is stored in Control File?
Ans) The database nameThe timestamp of database creationThe names and locations of associated datafiles and redo log filesTablespace informationDatafile offline rangesThe log historyArchived log informationBackup set and backup piece informationBackup datafile and go back over log informationDatafile copy informationThe current log sequence number 
3. When you start an Oracle DB which file is accessed first?
Ans) If it has First read init.ora file otherwise spfile.ora
4. What is the Job of SMON, PMON processes?
SMON :- System monitor process recovers after an instance failure and monitors temporarysegments and extents.
PMON :- Process monitor process cleans up processes and releases locks and resources after anabnormal termination of a process.
. What is Instance Recovery?
When an Oracle instance fails,Oracle performs an instance recovery when the associateddatabase is re-started.Instance recovery occurs in two steps:Cache recovery: Changes being made to a database are recorded inthe database buffer cache. These changes are also recorded in online redo logfiles simultaneously. When there are enough data in the database buffer cache,they are written to data files. If an Oracle instance fails before the data inthe database buffer cache are written to data files, Oracle uses the datarecorded in the online redo log files to recover the lost data when theassociated database is re-started. This process is called cache recovery.Transaction recovery: When a transaction modifies data in adatabase, the before image of the modified data is stored in an undo segment.The data stored in the undo segment is used to restore the original values incase a transaction is rolled back. At the time of an instance failure, thedatabase may have uncommitted transactions. It is possible that changes made bythese uncommitted transactions have gotten saved in data files. To maintainread consistency, Oracle rolls back all uncommitted transactions when theassociated database is re-started. Oracle uses the undo data stored in undosegments to accomplish this. This process is called transaction recovery.
6. What is written in Redo Log Files?
og writer (
GWR) writes redo log buffer contents Into Redo
og FIles.
og writer does thisevery three seconds, when the redo log buffer is 1/3 full and immediately before the DatabaseWriter (DBWn) writes its changed buffers into the datafile.
7. How do you control number of Datafiles one can have in an Oracle database?
When starting an Oracle instance, the database's parameter file indicates the amount of SGAspace to reserve for datafile information; the maximum number of datafiles is controlled by theDB_FI
S parameter. This limit applies only for the life of the instance.
8. How many Maximum Datafiles can there be in an Oracle Database?
Ans) Max datafiles in oracle is 65536 or 65546..
9. What is a Tablespace?
Ans) A database is divided into
ogical Storage Unit called tablespaces. A tablespace is used togrouped related logical structures together.
10. What is the purpose of Redo Log files?
Ans) The purpose of redo log file is to record all changes made to the data during the recovery of database.T always advisable to have two or more redo log files and keep them in a separate disk So youcan recover the data during the system crash.
11. Which default Database roles are created when you create a Database?Ans)
Connect , resource and dba are three default roles.12. What is a Checkpoint?13. Which Process reads data from Datafiles?Ans)
Server process.14. Which Process writes data in Datafiles?Ans)
Server Processes. (else DBWR)1
. Can you make a Datafile auto extendible.If yes, how?

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