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04 Frequency Modulation

04 Frequency Modulation

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07/14/2014

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4
FREQUENCY MODULATION
Amplitude modulation was discussed in the previous chapter. In this chapter we willdiscuss frequency modulation, which is also known as, angle modulation.
Angle Modulation
Variation of the angle of carrier signal with time results in angle modulation. It is of two types;a)Frequency Modulationb)Phase Modulation
Frequency Modulation
The type of modulation in which the instantaneous frequency of the carrier is variedaccording to amplitude of modulating signal is called frequency modulation.Frequency modulation is widely used in VHF communication systems e.g. FMbroadcasting, transmission of sound signal in TV, Satellite Communication etc.Figure 1 Frequency Modulated wave
 
Induction Course (General)
Frequency modulated wave is shown in Fig.1. The instantaneous frequency variesabout the average frequency (carrier frequency) at the rate of modulating frequency.The amount by which the frequency varies away from the average frequency (carrier frequency) is called frequency deviation and is proportional to the amplitude of themodulating signal.
Analysis of FM waves
Equation of a sine wave in the generalized form ise = A sin
θ
. (1)Where e is instantaneous amplitude, A is peak amplitude and
θ
is total angular displacement at time t.A frequency modulated wave with sinusoidal modulation has its frequency variedaccording to the amplitude of the modulating signal. If 
f is the maximum deviationof frequency from average, then instantaneous frequency is
d Now f or  f  fc f 
mcm
θ ω ω π ω ω  ω 
=+=+=
cos2,cos
(2)Integrating both sides
)3()tsinmtsin(Ae mLet)tsint(sinA )tsin2t(sinAe tsin2tdt.
mcmmmcmmcmmc
ω+ω= =ω+ω=ωωπ+ω= ωωπ+ω=θ θ=ω
∫ 
Where
m
is called the Modulation Index of the FM wave.Thus for a given frequency deviation modulation index varies inversely as themodulating frequency.The frequency components actually contained in the FM wave can be determined byexpanding RHS of equation (3), then we getSTI(T) Publication
44
002/IC(G)/2004
 
Frequency Modulation
e=AJ
0
(
m
) sin
ω
c
t+AJ
1
(
m
) [sin (
ω
c
+
ω
m
)t-sin (
ω
c
-
ω
m
)t]+AJ
2
(
m
) [sin (
ω
c
+2
ω
m
)t+sin (
ω
c
-2
ω
m
)t]+AJ
3
(
m
) [sin (
ω
c
+3
ω
m
)t-sin (
ω
c
-3
ω
m
)t]+AJ
4
(
m
) [sin (
ω
c
+4
ω
m
)t+sin (
ω
c
-4
ω
m
)t]+AJ
5
(
m
) [sin (
ω
c
+5
ω
m
)t+sin (
ω
c
-5
ω
m
)t]+..(4)Where J
n
(
m
) is the Bessel function of first kind and nth order with argument m
.Bessel functions J
o
to J
8
are shown in fig. 2.Equation (4) shows that an FM wave corresponding to sinusoidal modulation is madeup of several frequency components spaced apart by the modulating frequency.Thus an FM wave has in addition to the side bands present in an AM wave, higher order sidebands as well. AmplitudesFig. 2 Bessel Function J
o
to J
8
of different frequency components depend upon m
, the modulation index. When themodulation index is less than 0.5, that is when the frequency deviation is less thanhalf the modulation frequency the second and higher order components are relativelysmall and the frequency band required to accommodate the essential part of thesignal is the same as in amplitude modulation. This is called Narrowband FM and isused for speech communications. When m
is larger than one (frequency deviationgreater than modulating frequency) there are important higher order sidebandcomponents contained in the wave and it is called wide band FM.Practical values of modulation index vary considerably with frequency. If f 
m
= 15 kHzandSTI(T) Publication
45
002/IC(G)/2004

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