Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Ranger II Press Kit

Ranger II Press Kit

Ratings: (0)|Views: 45|Likes:
Published by Bob Andrepont
NASA press kit for Ranger II
NASA press kit for Ranger II

More info:

Published by: Bob Andrepont on Nov 12, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/07/2012

pdf

text

original

 
NEWS
RELEASE
NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION
1520
H
STREET, NORTHWEST
.
WASHINGTON 25, D.
C.
TELEPHONES: DUDLEY 2-6325
.
EXECUTIVE 3-3260
FOR RELEASE:
AeMe's
Tuesday, October
17,
1961
RELEASE
NO,
61-224
RANGER
2
TO
BE
LAUNCHED
Ranger
2
will be launched by the National Aeronautics andSpace Administration at Cape Canaveral, Fla., within a few days.
It
will be the second launching in the Ranger Series. Ranger
I
was launched from
MR
on
August
23
and placed in a low earthorbit. Although the flight was made in an environment
for
whichthe spacecraft was not designed,
it
provided a good test
of
manyspacecraft subsystems.Both Ranger
I
and
2
alaedesigned to develop and test basicspacecraft technology required
for
lunar and planetary missions.These include an attitude stabilization system. ased on celestialreferences (the sun and earth), a high-gain pointable antenna,an advanced communication system, the development
of
componentsable to operate for long periods in a space environment, and
the
calibration
of
solar cells in a apace environment,
Ranger
2,
like Ranger
I,
will carry many important scientific
I
experiments designed to study the nature and activity of cosmicrays, magnetic fields, and radiation and dust particles in space,along with an experiment which seeks
to
discover if the earthcarries along with
it
a comet-like tail of hydrogen gas.Eight scientific experiment? are carried on Ranger
2.
Theyare
the
work
of
scientists and engineers at the California Insti-tute of Technobgy, Goddard Space Flight Centers Jet PropulsionLaboratory, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Naval ResearchLaboratory, State University
of
Iowa, and
the
University of Chi-cago.The Ranger project is part
of
the
National Aeronaptfcs andSpace Administration program to explore the moon and the planets.The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, operated for the NASA
by
Caltech,developed
the
Ranger spacecraft and
is
responsible for the execu-tion of'lurrent projects in the unmanned partofthis program.The Ranger project
is
divided into three phases. The firstphase is the development and testing
of
the spacecraft technol-ogy by Rangers
I
and
2.
Like Ranger
I,
Ranger
2
will not
be
aimed
1-1
.........
...........
...
.......
......
.
--
. ._
"
-
-
..
 
?
at
the moon
but
will
be
sent
off on
a
long
trajectory into
space,
reaching more than half a million miles from earth before
it
returns to earth's atmosphere and burns up after a round trip ofperhaps more than
50
days.The second phase of the Ranger project will start early nextyear and will include three Ranger spacecraft designed to placean instrumented capsule on the moon to measure and report toearth on the presence, or absence, of moon quakes. These Rangersalso will take television pictures of the moon.In the third phase of the project, four Rangers will carryhigh-resolution television cameras designed to send back to earthfine-grain
TV
pictures
of
the lunar surface right up
to
the momentof impact.SPACECRAFT DESCRIPTION
ba
wi
it
Ranger
2
is slightly more than five feet in diameter at the.se
of
the
hexagon and
11
feet long. Inits cruise position,th its solar panels extended to collectenergy from
the
sun,of which 261 is represented by the electronics,
121
is
the
scien-tific experiments,
50
is the solar panels,
125
is structure, and
118
is launch-backup battery.is
17
feet in span and
13
feet long. Ranger
2
weighs
675
pounds,Rising from the hexagonal base are four struts:;and fourdiagonal braces made
of
aluminum which serve to support thescientific instrumentation. Ranger
2
has two radio transmittersand two ankennas, one an omnidirectional antenna at the frontend of the spacecraft, and the second a high-gain directionalantenna
4
feet in diameter at the base of the spacecraft, whichwill
be
aimed at
the
earth in order to permit more efficienttransmission of data after Ranger
2
is well out in space.The solar panels are each approximately
10
square feet, andeach contains
4340
solar cells to collect sun energy, making atotal
of
8680
solar cells on the two panels. They are expected
to
pick up enough solar energy
to
be
converted into a minimumof
155
watts and a maximum of
210
watts,Because of the attenuation of solar energy
by
the earth'satmosphere, there is uncertainty as to precisely how much solarenergy can
be
collected by the panels and converted into electri-cal energy.
This
uncertainty must
be
resolved before more com-plicated spacecraft carrying solar panels are sent out on differentmissions, some as far as Venus and Mars,
so
one of the experimentson board Ranger
2
include's four specially calibrated solar cellswhich will measure the characteristics of solar cells operatingin a space environment.
i
The two solar panels are hinged on framework below thehexagon, and in the launch position are carried folded in themanner
of
butterfly wings.1-2
 
..
.
In
the
hollowed-out inner section of
the
hexagon
is
a
silverzinc battery weighing
118
pounds
with
a
capacityof
9000
watt
hours.
This
battery
will
provide
the
power
to
run
the
spacecraftprior
to
the
time
of acquisition of
the
sun by
the
solar panels,and also,
will
serve
as
a
bacmp
power
source
if
the
solar
acqui-sition
is
not successful.
The
battery
will
provide enoughelectrical power
to
run
the
spacecraft for two
days.The
two radio transmitters on board
will
both send
data
to
earth
via
the
omnidirectional antenna initially.
A
three-watt
transmitter
will
send on
a
frequency near
960
megacycles, and
a
separate
quarter-watt transmitter
will
send on
a
similar
fre-quency,
the
three-watt
transmitter shifting
to
the
directionalantenna
after
earth
acquisition.
The
quarter-watt transmitter
has
a
lifetime
of seven
days
and
will
stay on
the
air
continuouslyuntil
its
battery
is
exhausted,SPACECRAFT
CONTROLLER
Six boxes located on each
side
of
the
hexagonal base containthe electronic intelligence of Ranger
2,
One of
the
most impor-tant of
these
instruments
is
called
the
spacecraft controller.
It
is
this
controller which
tells
Ranger
to
calculate electron-ically when
it
should perform
what
function, when
it
should
roll
and pitch
to
find
the
sun and lock onto
this
power source
with
its
solar
panels, when to find
the
earth
and
aim
its
directionalantenna
at
the
earth,
as
well
as
many other functions.The spacecraft controller
is
an electronic solid-state
timer.
It
takes
400
cycles per second fromthespacecraft powersource and divides
it
into one pulse
per
second, anduses
these
pulses
as
the
basic timing reference. These pulses
are
accumula-
ted
in
a
storage device.
The
controller also contains
a
memorydevice which
has
a
pre-set
series of triggers.When
the
accumulated pulses per second match
the
pre-set
count stored in
thememory
device,
a
relay
is
closed and
the
controller issues
a
command for
Ranger
2
to
perform some specificfunction. From launch
to
the
end of
its
useful
lifethere
are
ten such commands
that
the controller must issue; hence
there
are
ten such channels and ten such
relays.
The
controller
timer
is
started
three
minutes before launch.
This
time
then serves
as
the
reference point for future commands
to
be
issued by
the
controller. When
the
spacecraft
is
turnedon, from power supplied
by
the
large
silver zinc
battery
inside
the
hexagon, most of
the
scientific instruments, and both
the
quarter-watt and
the
three-watt
transmitter, begin
to
operate.However, some instruments
are
not turned on, notably
the
solar corpuscular detectors, micrometeorite detector, and
the
Lyman
Alpha
telescope;
the
three-watt
transmitter
is
given onlyenough power
to
run
at
half
strength,
or
1.5
watts.
This
is
done because,
as
the
launch vehicle
passes
through
a
crit$cal
--
.
.
.
.-
.. .
._
..
.
."
,
.
.
..
_.
__
.-
.
.
'
.
.
.
.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->