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Is Androcentric Archaeology Really About Men? L. Skogstrand, Journal of the World Archaeological Congress, 2010

Is Androcentric Archaeology Really About Men? L. Skogstrand, Journal of the World Archaeological Congress, 2010

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05/28/2011

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Is Androcentric Archaeology Really AboutMen?
Lisbeth Skogstrand,
Museum of Cultural History, University of Oslo,St.Olavs Plass, P.B. 6762, 0130, Oslo, NorwayE-mail: lisbeth.skogstrand@khm.uio.no
ABSTRACT
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The article starts with a discussion of the relation between feministarchaeology and gender archaeology followed by a short account of howandrocentrism may influence on archaeological research. By exploring tworepresentative examples I will argue that androcentric archaeology mainlyreproduces stereotype images of men and do not provide much new orreal knowledge about prehistoric men or understandings of masculinity.Consequently, there is a need to study prehistoric men as gendered and Iwill argue that to include studies in men and masculinity into a genderarchaeology based on feminist theory might challenge androcentricarchaeological studies just as much as to study women in prehistory.
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Re´sume´:Cet article de´bute par une analyse de la relation entre l’arche´ologiefe´ministe et l’arche´ologie de genre, suivie d’un court expose´portant sur lamanie`re dont l’androcentrisme peut influencer la recherche arche´ologique.Par l’exploration de deux exemples repre´sentatifs, je de´montrerai quel’arche´ologie androcentrique reproduit principalement les imagesste´re´otype´es des hommes et n’apportent que peu de connaissancesnouvelles ou re´elles concernant les hommes pre´historiques ou lacompre´hension de la masculinite´. Par conse´quent, il est ne´cessaire d’e´tudierles hommes pre´historiques en tant qu’eˆtres sexue´s, et je de´montreraiqu’inclure les e´tudes portant sur les hommes et la masculinite´dans unearche´ologie de genre base´e sur la the´orie fe´ministe est tout autantsusceptible de remettre en question les e´tudes arche´ologiquesandrocentriques qu’e´tudier les femmes dans la pre´histoire.
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Resumen:Este artı´culo comienza con un debate sobre la relacio´n entre laarqueologı´a feminista y la arqueolo´a de ge´nero, seguido de una breve
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This article is based on parts of a PhD-thesis in progress with the working title‘‘Warriors and other Men. Notions of Masculinity from the Bronze Age to the IronAge expressed through burials, 1100 BC–400 AD’’ (Skogstrand in prep.).
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2010 The Author(s). This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
 Archaeologies: Journal of the World Archaeological Congress ( 
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2010)
DOI 10.1007/s11759-010-9149-1
 
narracio´n de co´mo el androcentrismo puede influir en las investigacionesarqueolo´gicas. Analizando dos ejemplos representativos, arguyo que laarqueologı´a androce´ntrica reproduce ba´sicamente estereotipos sobre loshombres y no ofrece mucho conocimiento nuevo o real sobre los hombresprehisto´ricos ni sobre la comprensio´n de la masculinidad. Por tanto, esnecesario estudiar a los hombres prehisto´ricos desde la base del ge´nero, ypostulo que la inclusio´n de los estudios sobre los hombres y lamasculinidad en una arqueologı´a de ge´nero basada en la teorı´a feministapodrı´a hacer peligrar los estudios arqueolo´gicos androce´ntricos, de lamisma forma que lo harı´a el estudiar a las mujeres en la prehistoria.
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KEY WORDS
Androcentrism,Feminist theory,Masculinity,Prehistory
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Feminist critique has pointed to and criticized androcentrism withinarchaeology for more than 30 years. It has called attention to the assump-tion that men occupied all active positions in social and ritual life as wellas in the development of society. Women have for the most part beeninvisible in the interpretations and presentations of prehistory, and whenpresent it is usually as stereotype images according to 19th century ideals(e.g. Bertelsen et al.1987; Conkey and Gero1991; Conkey and Spector 1984; Engelstad2001:345; Hjørungdal1991,1994). Figure1beautifully  illustrates the traditional androcentric view of a Southern ScandinavianBronze Age society. The men are present everywhere while the women aresafely placed indoors; even in the darkness, taking care of children.In this article I will start by giving a short account for how androcent-rism may influence archaeology. By using two examples which I find repre-sentative for their time and tradition I will discuss whether androcentricarchaeological research really informs us about men and what kind of knowledge it provides about prehistoric men and masculinity. I will arguethat there is a need to explicitly study men and masculinities withinarchaeology and that it should be done within the already established femi-nist inspired gender archaeology.First, however, I will shortly consider the relation between feministarchaeology and gender archaeology. Feminism as a political movementwas crucial in the initial phase of gender studies in archaeology, as well asin science in general. While some today define their research as feministarchaeology (e.g. Conkey 2003; Engelstad2004,2007; Spector1993; Voss 2000; Wylie2007), most use the more neutral term gender archaeology. Many even avoid using the term ‘‘feminist’and several have explicitl
LISBETH SKOGSTRAND
 
argued that gender archaeology should be separated from feminism (e.g.Gilchrist1999; Moore1997; Sørensen2000). Ericka Engelstad (2007:226) suggests that the motivation is a desire for being ‘‘mainstream’’ and a fearof being controversial and political, and thus marginalized. She notes, how-ever, that what is rejected seems to be a conception of feminism associatedwith 2nd wave feminism that existed in the 60s and 70s (see also Moi2006). The major problem, however, is that many seem to confuse politicalfeminism with feminist theory and consequently avoid employing feministtheory in archaeological gender studies.I will not consider whether we ought to call it feminist or genderarchaeology, but to concern with gender in archaeology without feministtheory, epistemology and critique of science is simply a process of add gen-der and stir, resulting in under-theorised studies which neither challengethe understanding of prehistory nor archaeological research practice(Engelstad2004,2007; Wylie2007). It is beyond the scope of this paper to go into this any further, but I will return to the issue at the end of thepaper and consider the relation between archaeological studies in masculin-ity and a gender archaeology based on feminist theory. In the followinganalyses and discussions the term feminist is used to describe workswhich are based on critical feminist theory and epistemology, while genderarchaeology includes all archaeological studies focusing on gender,
Figure 1.
A Southern Scandinavian Bronze Age Society? (http://www-lu.hive.no/plansjer/)
Is Androcentric Archaeology Really About Men? 

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