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Introduction to Pharmacology & Pharmacologic Principles

Introduction to Pharmacology & Pharmacologic Principles

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Published by: nagakolli on Jul 29, 2008
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05/26/2013

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Introduction to Pharmacology
Pharmacology
the study of science of drugsDrug
any chemical that affects the processes of a living organism
I.
Drug sources:
 
a.plantsb.animalsc.mineralsd.chemical synthesis/ biogenetic engineeringII.Drug uses:
prevent diseases
treat diseases
diagnose diseases
prevent pregnancy
maintain health
III.
Drug names
Chemical name
o
the drug’s chemical composition and molecular structure
o
ex.( +/- ) – 2 – ( p-isobutylphenyl ) proponic acid
Generic Name ( Nonproprietary name )
o
name given by the United States Adopted Name Council
o
universally accepted
o
ex.ibuprofen
Trade Name ( Brand name/ Proprietary name)
o
the drug has a registered trademark ; use of the name restricted by the drug’sowner 
o
ex. Motrin
IV.
Drug Standards:
same drug name must have same strength, quality & purity
based on United States Pharmacopeia and National Formulary (USP-NF)
V.
Drug references:
American Hospital Formulary Service (AHFS) Drug Information
Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR)
Package inserts
Drug Facts and Comparisons
Saunders/ Lipincott’s Nursing Drug Guide
Journals
Internet
 
VI. Phases of Drug Development1.Preclinical trial2.Phase 1
3.
Phase 24.Phase 35.Phase 4VII. Legal RegulationA. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Pregnancy Categories:Category A
no risk to fetusCategory B
no risk in animal fetus; no human studies availableCategory C
adverse effects to animal fetus; no human studies availableCategory D
possible fetal risk in humans reportedCategory X
fetal abnormalities reported; + evidence of fetal risk in animal/& humanstudies.B. Controlled Substances:
controlled substances
OTC drugs
 
prescription drugs
orphan drugs
dependenceDrug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedules of Controlled Substances:
 
Schedule I Drugs
high potential for abuse
used for research only
ex. heroin, marijuana, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)Schedule II Drugs
high abuse potential
severe physical & psychologic dependence
acceptable medical use, with restrictions
ex. amphetamines, cocaine, mepiridine (Demerol) , morphine, anabolic steroidsSchedule III Drugs
moderate potential for abuse
psychological dependence , low physical dependence
acceptable medical use, by prescription only
ex. secobarbital (Seconal), Tylenol with codeineSchedule IV
low potential for abuse
limited physical & psychological dependence
ex. diazepam (Valium), phenobarbital, chlordiazepoxide (Librium)Schedule V
low potential for abuse
acceptable medical use
OTC narcotic drugs, sold only by registered pharmacists: buyer must be 18yo
Ex. cough syrups with codeine eg. Guaifenesin,diphenoxylate HCL with atropine ( Lomotil)

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