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IGNOU Political Science Material - South Asia Www Prep4civils Com

IGNOU Political Science Material - South Asia Www Prep4civils Com

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Presents IGNOU Material

Political Science: South Asia – Economy, Society and Politics

About Us: Prep4Civils, website is a part of Sukratu Innovations, a start up by IITians. The main theme of the company is to develop new web services which will help people. Prep4Civils is an online social networking platform intended for the welfare of people who are preparing for Civil services examinations. The whole website was built on open-source platform Wordpress.

Contact Details: Website: http://www.
Presents IGNOU Material

Political Science: South Asia – Economy, Society and Politics

About Us: Prep4Civils, website is a part of Sukratu Innovations, a start up by IITians. The main theme of the company is to develop new web services which will help people. Prep4Civils is an online social networking platform intended for the welfare of people who are preparing for Civil services examinations. The whole website was built on open-source platform Wordpress.

Contact Details: Website: http://www.

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Presents
IGNOU
Material
Political Science: South Asia
 –
Economy, Society and Politics
About Us:
Prep4Civils, website is a part of 
Sukratu Innovations
,
a start up by IITians. The main theme of the company is todevelop new web services which will help people. Prep4Civils is an online social networking platform intended for thewelfare of people who are preparing for Civil services examinations. The whole website was built on open-source platformWordpress.
 
Contact Details:
Disclaimer and Terms of Use:
By following Creative Common License, for the welfare of large student body we are merging
all the pdf files provided by IGNOU’s course material
website egyankosh and redistributing the files by giving proper creditto IGNOU and the redistribution is based on the norms of Creative Common License. We are not commercially distributingthe files. People who are downloading these files should not be engaged in any sort of sales or commercial distribution of these files. They can redistribute these copies freely by giving proper credit to the original author, IGNOU(http://egyankosh.ac.in/
)and “Prep4Civils”(
http://www.prep4civils.com/)by providing proper hyperlinks of the websites.Any sort of clichés can be addressed at admin@prep4civils.com and proper action will be taken.
 
 
I
UNIT
1
STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCEAND NATIONALISM
IN
SOUTH ASIA
t
structure
1.0
Objectives
1
1.1
Introduction
I
1
1.2
Nationalism in South Asia
i
1.3 Freedom Struggle in South Asia
1.3.1 India1.3.2 Pakistan
!
1.3.3 Bangladesh1.3.4 SriLanka1.3.5 Nepal1.3.6 Bhutan1.3.7 Maldives
1.4 Let Us Sum Up1.5 Some Useful Books1.6 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises
1.0 OBJECTIVES
This unit seeks to acquaint you with the idea of nation and nationalism in South Asia andthe struggle for independence from colonial rule launched in different countries of theregion. After going through this unit, you should be able to:
a
Explain the rise of national consciousness in different countries of South Asia;Describe the issues involved in the freedom movement; and
a
Identify the different strategies for liberation adopted in the region.
1. INTRODUCTION
South Asia has a continuous history of seven thousand years. It has a composite culturedeveloped through a historical process wherein the emphasis has been on unity in diversity.South Asia has been the victim of repeated foreign aggression. The richness of theregion perhaps attracted the aggressors from far and wide. In the successive waves ofinvasions since the ancient times, the Aryans, the Greeks, the Shakas, the Huns, theTurko-Afgans, the Mughals and others came to the region. In the modem period, theEuropeans viz. Portuguese, Dutch, French and the British came to South Asia, though itwas the British who finally established their hold in the region. The British invasion wasqualitatively different from the earlier ones. Whereas the earlier invaders came, settleddowkhere and got completely assimilated with the indigenous people, the British integrated
!
the region into their empire and ruled it from London. The region was linked with theindustrially advanced international market in order to exploit its natural resources. South
!
Asian economy and society became subordinated to the imperialist political economy
I
and social development. The region was transformed int0.a market for the British machinemade goods, a source of raw material and foodstuffs, and an important field of capitalinvestment. The entire structure of economic relations between Europe and the SouthAsia involving trade, finance and technology continuously developed the colonialdependence and underdevelopment of the latter. This new politico-economic system ofsubordination, called as colonialism, resulted in the emergence of Europe as a leading
 
South
Asia as
a
Region
capitalist region while the coloi~ieswere reduced to backward and underdevelopedregions of the world. In course of time, the economic and political domination led tonumerous conflicts and ~ontradictionswhich ultimately resulted in the growth ofnationalism and movements for independence from colonial rule.
NATIONALISM IN SOUTH ASIA
Broadly, there were three patterns of colonial governance in the region. Whereas theBritish Indian Empire embraced the area which covered:the present independentrepublics of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, Sri Lanka was governed as a 'Crowncolony". The smaller nations of Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives were not Britishcolonies, but were 'protectorates', that is, in return for surrendering their autonomyover their external relations, their independent existence was protected by the British.Given that nationalism in South Asia emerged as a reaction against colonial exploitationand subjugation, the regions which were under the direct control of the colonialadministration witnessed strong anticolonial and nationalist movementsThe rise and growth of nationalism in South Asia was a reaction against colonialexploitation and subjugation. The new form of nationalism that became the basis ofthe new states in South Asia derived much of its ideology and political theory from theWest but was adapted to particular circumstances and experiences. The basis of thisnew nationalism was
an
instinctive and xenophobic hatred for imperialism and symbolsof imperialism. It was a simple hatred against those who had occupied their land byforce, explbited their riches by force, crushed thkir government, and enslaved theirpeople. Nationalism also became a creative force which aimed at building a nationbased upon the principles of liberty, independence, economic ustice and nationality. Itnot only united the people, but also inspired them to contribute their share in the nationalreconstruction. The lead in this regard was given by India which produced one of thebiggest mass movements
in
the world. The movement not only succeeded in freeing itfrom colonial yoke, but also left a historically developed, well thought out programmefor free India. The example of India inspired other colonies such as Sri Lanka andgave raise to political consciousness in countries like Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives.
1.3 FREEDOM STRUGGLE IN SOUTHASIA
1.3.1
India
The rise and growth of nationalism in India was the product of the interaction ofnumerous objective and subjective forces which emerged in the historical processduring the British colonial rule. While colonialism resulted in the economic exploitationof India and the destruction of its agriculture and handicrafts, it also led to the politicaland administrative unification of India. This factor combined with the introduction ofmodem transport, new education, press etc. resulted in the raise of nationalconsciousness. Since nationalism in India developed under the aegis of Britishimperialism (which remained foreign till its expulsion), a lot-ofhurdles were created inits development and consolidation.The Indian national movement passed through various phases and with each passingphase, its social base broadened, its objective became clearer and its forms ofexpression varied. The finst phase of the national movement began in 1885 with theformation ofthe Indian National Congress (INC)
and
lasted roughly up to 1905. Duringthis phase, the leadership of the movement was in the hands of liberal leaders likeDadabhai Naoroji, G.K. Gokhale, M.G.Ranade, S.N. Banerjee, Ferozeshah Mehtaetc. At this stage, the objective of the movement was not freedom but political,administrative and economic reforms. At political level, the demand was to reform thecentral and local legislatihe councils so as to secure more powers for the Indianrepresentatives (which resulted in the passing of Indian Councils Act, 1892T. At theadministrative level, the most important demand was to Indianise the higher grades of

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