Coming to Terms? The Russian Federation and its ‘Near Abroad’ Dilemma
Soviet Union. Instead of it was proposed the setting up of a Community of Independent States (CIS)’.
All what Gorbachev was left to do was to resign.
Nationalism against ideology and the dismantling of the Soviet Union
The ideological void which followed the USSR’s collapse was quickly filled by a plethora of nationalist, even fascist beliefs.
In fact, as Brzezinskipertinently argued, ‘although it proclaims itself to be a doctrine of internationalism, communism actually intensified the nationalist populist passions. It produced a political culture impregnated by intolerance, by hypocrisy, by rejection of social compromise and a massive disposition towardsthe adulation of exaggerated simplification. In the conviction plan, dogmaticcommunism fused, in this way, with intolerant nationalism and evenstrengthened it; in the practice plan, the destruction of some relatively internationalist classes, like the aristocracy or the commercial elite, alsointensified the populist disposition towards nationalist chauvinism’.
The long and oppressive communist ideology revealed its fragileness as it tried to reform itself, in order to maintain the center’s authority and thecohesiveness of the Soviet Union’s mosaicated components. It even allowed somemanifestations of ‘localism’ and ‘narrowminded nationalism’
in the more harder attempt to preserve the political architecture of communism. But it was in vain.Once the regime had irremediably lost the possibilities of
(a functional economy, the improvement of the quality of life, decent social assistanceservices, etc.), and it started resorting to
passional, irrational types of legitimation
,such as temporary appeals to nationalism (like Stalin putted into practice when theUSSR was invaded by Nazy Germany), or the eternal myth of the scapegoat,personified in this case by the ‘imperialist camp’
the regime unwillingly amplified,and finally liberated the corseted, peripheral cultural identities, which resulted intoits tumultuous demise. In fact, the USSR’s hermetical seclusion, despite itsclaimed internationalist ethos, was very much of daily occurrence. At least in theStalinist epoch, the sympathies toward strangers, foreign cultures or foreign waysof life, could easily have resulted into prison sentences.
‘Geocultural nationalism’ and the reorganization attempts of the post-soviet space. The case of Eurasiatism.
The revival of nationalism was accompanied by social and ethnic tensionsall over the former empire. The long and oppressive communist ideology’s failureto create a ‘socialist internationalism’ was best brought abroad by the multitude
Idem. See also Vasile Buga,
., p. 140; M.B. Olcott; A. Åslund; S. V. Garnett,
Getting it Wrong.Regional Cooperation and the Commonwealth of Independent States
, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Massachussets, 1999, pp. 5-7; Michael Stürmer,
i noua Rusie
,Editura Litera Interna
ti, 2009, pp. 107-108
ele lui Ianus. Marxism
i fascism în secolul XX
, Editura Univers, Bucure
ti,2002, pp. 133-156; Zbigniew Brezinski,
., p. 241; Ylia Prizel, ‘Na
ionalismul în Rusia postcomunist
. De la resemnare la furie’, in Sorin Antohi, Vladimir Tim
De la utopie la istorie. Revolu
iile din 1989
, Editura Curtea Veche, Bucure
ti, 2006, pp. 504-538.
i de Est în ciclonul tranzi
, Editura Diogene, Bucure
ti,1995, p. 88
Bohdan Nahaylo, ‘Nationalities’, in Martin McCauley,
The Soviet Union under Gorbachev
,MacMillan, London, 1987, p. 88
Andrei Zhdanov, ‘The two-camp policy’, in Gale Stokes (ed.),
From Stalinism to Pluralism. A documentary History of Eastern Europe since 1945
, Oxford University Press, New York, 1991, p. 42
l meu, Stalin
, Editura Elit, Bucure