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(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security,Vol. 2, No. 6, June 2010
20
Power Management in Wireless ad-hoc Networkswith Directional Antennas
 
Mahasweta Sarkar
1
and Ankur Gupta
2
 
1
Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringSan Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
 Email: msarkar2@mail.sdsu.edu
2
Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringSan Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA
 Email: ankur275@gmail.com
Abstract:
Power control in wireless ad-hoc networks has been known to significantly increase network lifetime and also impact system throughput positively. In this paper, we investigate thevirtues of power control in an ad-hoc network where nodes areequipped with directional antennas. We use a cross-layer power optimization scheme. The novelty of our work lies in the fact that we exploit the knowledge of the network topology to dynamically change our power control scheme. The information about the network topology is retrieved from the Network Layer.Specifically, we consider three different network topologies
– 
(i) a sparse topology, (ii) a dense topology and a (iii) cluster-based  topology. The MAC layer, implements a dynamic power control  scheme which regulates the transmission power of a transmitting node based on the node density at the receiver node. In addition a transmitting node can adjust its transmission power to the optimal level if the SINR value at the receiving node is known. Our cross-layer power control  algorithm takes the above fact into account. Extensive simulation in NS2 shows that in all the three topologies our cross layer design (use of directional antennas with power control) leads to prolonged network lifetime and significantlyincreases the system throughput.
Keywords:
ad hoc network, power management,directional antenna, cross layer
 
1. Introduction
An ad-hoc or short-live network is the network of two ormore mobile devices connected to each other without thehelp of intervening infrastructure. In contrast to a fixedwireless network, an ad-hoc network can be deployed inremote geographical locations and requires minimum setupand administration costs. Moreover, the integration of anad-hoc network with a bigger network-such as the Internet-or a wireless infrastructure network increases the coveragearea and application domain of the ad-hoc network.However, communication in an ad-hoc network betweendifferent hosts that are not directly linked is an issue notonly for search and rescue operations, but also foreducational and business purposes.An ad-hoc network can be classified into two main types:mobile ad-hoc network and mobile ad-hoc sensors network.Unlike typical sensor networks, which communicate directlywith the centralized controller, a mobile ad-hoc sensornetwork follows a broader sequence of operational scenarios,thus demanding a less complex setup procedure. A mobilead-hoc sensor or hybrid ad-hoc network consists of anumber of sensor spreads in a geographical area. Eachsensor is capable of mobile communication and has somelevel of intelligence to process signals and to transmit data.In order to support routed communications between twomobile nodes, the routing protocol determines the nodeconnectivity and routes packets accordingly. This makes amobile ad-hoc sensor network highly adaptable so that it canbe deployed in almost all environments like militaryoperations, security in shopping malls and hotels or to locatea vacant parking spot.Each node in the network is equipped with an antenna(omni directional or directional) which enables it to find itsneighbors and communicate with them. Since the antennaplays such an important role in the communication, thechoice of the antenna becomes critical. With the existingschemes, an omni directional antenna was used both at thetransmitter and at the receiver end. Although using thisconfiguration does enable us to achieve the task of communication, there are many drawbacks of using an omnidirection antenna as compared to using a directional one.Extensive research in MAC and PHY layer protocols isbeing conducted to support these antennas.With theadvancement in antenna technology it has become possibleto use array antennas and purely directional antennas in ad-hoc networks. Some of the advantages of using directionalantennas as compared to omni directional antennas areincreased range, spatial reuse and reduced collisions. Sincethe antenna beam can be pointed to a particular directionand all the energy can be focused there, the range isincreased. Unlike omni directional antennas, by usingdirectional antennas we can have more nodescommunicating in the same space, thereby exploiting spatialreuse and increasing the throughput of the system. Sinceomni directional antennas transmit and receive in all thedirections, they are more prone to collisions, which is notthe case when using directional antennas. Now that thechoice of antennas has been discussed, we discuss the mainfocus of this paper which is power control. The firstdrawback of using the fixed-power approach is that itnegatively impacts channel utilization by not allowingconcurrent transmissions to take place over the reservedfloor. The second drawback of the fixed-power approach isthat the received power may be far more than necessary toachieve the required signal-to-interference-and-noise ratio(SINR), thus wasting the node
s energy and shortening itslifetime. Therefore, there is a need for a solution, possibly a
 
(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security,Vol. 2, No. 6, June 2010
21cross layer one that allows concurrent transmissions to takeplace in the same vicinity and simultaneously conservesenergy.Ad-hoc networks could be broadly classified into threetopologies namely, spare, dense and cluster form. Since theMAC and Network layers play an important role inconserving power and increasing the system throughput, itis essential to have a cross layer design that can supportdifferent topologies. The MAC layer in a system controlshow and when a node accesses the medium. This alsoincludes the transmission power used for communication. If a transmitting node is aware of the ideal SINR value at thereceiver, it can adjust its transmitting power such that onlyrequired amount of power is used for communication. Indoing so not only does the transmitter save power (comparedto transmitting at full power) but also interferes with lessernodes (as increased power would mean increased range). Incase of sparse network, we introduce the
locally aware
 power management protocol in which a receiver can informits transmitter of the minimum required SINR (to be able todecode the signal) so that the transmitter can adjust itstransmitting power accordingly. In a dense topology areceiver may face interference from more nodes than in asparse topology. We propose the
globally aware
protocolhere. In such a case it is essential that the receiver transmitsits minimum required SINR value in all the directions. Thiswill ensure that all the transmitters in this receiver
sneighborhood will control their power such that they do notinterfere with this receiver anymore but can still carry onwith their own communications. Both the sparse and thedense topology designs are supported by a power awarerouting protocol at the Network layer. Since a sensornetwork is a network in which nodes gather relevant dataabout an activity and send it to an actor node whichprocesses the data further; it is important that efficientrouting is performed from the sensor nodes to the actornodes. Cluster topologies are very common in ad-hocsensor networks to record signals of interest at certain placesonly. Fig. 1 shows the difference between a homogeneousand non-homogeneous spatial distribution of nodes. Westudy the changes in power consumed and throughput whenall cluster nodes transmit at the same power to when there ispower control. Power control is implemented by makingsure that each cluster uses its own power level such that itdoes not interfere with other cluster nodes. This simple crosslayer design helps prolong the network lifetime and alsoshows increase in throughput.
Figure 1.
Difference between a Homogeneous and ClusterForm Spatial Distribution of nodesIn this paper we start by looking at the power managementschemes used in ad-hoc networks in section II. We thenpresent our cross layer design in section III. Simulationsetup in section IV is followed by results and analysis in theVth section. We conclude this paper in the VIth sectionfollowed by the references in the VIIth section.
2. Previous Work
The research community has done a lot of work to suggestpotential ways of power control in ad-hoc networks. In [1]Rong Zheng and Robin Kravets proposed an on demandpower management scheme for ad-hoc networks. It is anextensible on-demand power management framework forad-hoc networks that adapts to traffic load. Nodes maintainsoft-state timers that determine power managementtransitions. By monitoring routing control messages anddata transmission, these timers are set and refreshed on-demand. Nodes that are not involved in data delivery maygo to sleep as supported by the MAC protocol. This softstate is aggregated across multiple flows and itsmaintenance requires no additional out-of-band messages.The implementation is a prototype of the framework in theNS-2 simulator that uses the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol.Simulation studies using this scheme with the DynamicSource Routing protocol show a reduction in energyconsumption near 50% when compared to a network without power management under both long-lived CBRtraffic and on-off traffic loads, with comparable throughputand latency. Preliminary results also show that itoutperforms existing routing backbone election approaches.In [2] Zongpeng Li and Baochun Li present a probabilisticpower management scheme for ad-hoc networks. Itintroduces
Odds
, an integrated set of energy-efficient andfully distributed algorithms for power management inwireless ad-hoc networks. Odds is built on the observationthat explicit and periodic re-computation of the backbonetopology is costly with respect to its additional bandwidthoverhead, especially when nodes are densely populated orhighly mobile. Building on a fully probabilistic approach,Odds seek to make a minimum overhead, perfectlybalanced, and fully localized decision on each node withrespect to when and how long it needs to enter standbymode to conserve energy. Such a decision does not rely onperiodic message broadcasts in the local neighborhood, sothat Odds are scalable as node density increases. Detailedmathematical analysis, discussions and simulation resultshave shown that Odds are indeed able to achieve ourobjectives while operating in a wide range of density andtraffic loads. Power control schemes using purely directionaltransmission and reception have not been researched indetail. Exploiting the advantages of directional antennas[13, 14, 15, 20] shows considerable improvement in theoverall network performance.MAC layer solutions have been proposed from a long time.In [3] a scheme for controlling the transmission power ispresented. More specifically to the effects of using differenttransmit powers on the average power consumption andend-to-end network throughput in a wireless ad-hocenvironment. This power management approach reduces the
 
(IJCNS) International Journal of Computer and Network Security,Vol. 2, No. 6, June 2010
22system power consumption and thereby prolongs the batterylife of mobile nodes. Furthermore, the invention improvesthe end-to-end network throughput as compared to other ad-hoc networks in which all mobile nodes use the sametransmit power. The improvement is due to the achievementof a tradeoff between minimizing interference ranges,reduction in the average number of hops to reach adestination, reducing the probability of having isolatedclusters, and reducing the average number of transmissionsincluding retransmissions due to collisions. The presentinvention provides a network with better end-to-endthroughput performance and lowers the transmit power. [6]and [8] also talk about transmission power control.Topology control [4], [9] schemes have also been proposed.In [4] authors present
Span,
a power saving technique formulti-hop ad-hoc wireless networks that reduces energyconsumption without significantly diminishing the capacityor connectivity of the network. Span builds on theobservation that when a region of a shared-channel wirelessnetwork has a sufficient density of nodes, only a smallnumber of them need be on at any time to forward traffic foractive connections. Span is a distributed, randomizedalgorithm where nodes make local decisions on whether tosleep, or to join a forwarding backbone
as a
coordinator.Each node bases its decision on an estimate of how many of its neighbors will benefit from it being awake and theamount of energy available to it. Authors use a randomizedalgorithm where coordinators rotate with time,demonstrating how localized node decisions lead to aconnected, capacity-preserving global topology.Improvement in system lifetime due to Span increases as theratio of idle-to-sleep energy consumption increases, andincreases as the density of the network increases.Simulations show that with a practical energy model, systemlifetime of an 802.11 network in power saving mode withSpan is a factor of two better than without. Span integratesnicely with 802.11. When run in conjunction with the802.11 power saving mode, Span improves communicationlatency, capacity, and system lifetime. A cone-based solutionthat guarantees network connectivity was proposed in [9].Each node
i
gradually increases its transmission power untilit finds at least one neighbor in every cone of angle. Node
i
starts the algorithm by broadcasting a
Hello
message atlow transmission power and collecting replies. It graduallyincreases the transmission power to discover more neighborsand continuously caches the direction in which replies arereceived. It then checks whether each cone of angle containsa node. The protocol assumes the availability of directionalinformation (angle-of-arrival), which requires extrahardware. This scheme does not seem to work fordirectional antennas [16] as most of the replies would be lostdepending on where the source
s antenna is pointing. Someresearchers proposed the use of a synchronized globalsignaling channel to build a global network topologydatabase, where each node communicates only with itsnearest
 N 
neighbors (
 N 
is a design parameter). Thisapproach, however, requires a signaling channel in whicheach node is assigned a dedicated slot.A scheme based on clustering [5] in ad-hoc networks wasalso presented. This paper discusses the problem of powercontrol when nodes are non-homogeneously dispersed inspace. In such situations, one seeks to employ per packetpower control depending on the source and destination of the packet. This gives rise to a joint problem which involvesnot only power control but also clustering. Three solutionsfor joint clustering and power control are presented. Thefirst protocol, CLUSTERPOW, aims to increase the network capacity by increasing spatial reuse. The second, TunnelledCLUSTERPOW, allows a finer optimization by usingencapsulation. The last, MINPOW, whose basic idea is notnew, provides an optimal routing solution with respect tothe total power consumed in communication. Thecontribution includes a clean implementation of MINPOWat the network layer without any physical layer support. Allthree protocols ensure that packets ultimately reach theirintended destinations.Power aware routing protocols such as Power Aware AODV[10] also contribute to conserving the network power.Changes have been suggested to the NS2 routing structureto accommodate for a power aware routing protocol that isaimed at increasing the network lifetime. [17, 18, 19] alsopropose energy efficient schemes for wireless networks.
3. Proposed Scheme
3.1 Power Control: The MAC Perspective
In this paper we propose a cross layer design in which theMAC layer and the Network layer functions can be modifiedto achieve lesser power consumption and increasethroughput. The system mimics the 802.11 standard anduses directional antennas at the physical layer. Sincedifferent situations demand different control mechanisms,the solutions in this paper are aimed at the three mostcommon topologies in wireless ad-hoc networks, namelysparse, dense and cluster forms. A power controlled MACprotocol decides the power level for transmission for aparticular node. It is the power used to access the channeland also to carry on subsequent transmissions. Researchershave used different metrics to determine the optimumtransmission power; the SINR of the receiving node beingthe most popular
[add ref]
. We assume that there is amechanism like GPS that enables the nodes to be aware of the network topology. This enables the receivers to calculatethe SINR level based on the number of transmitters andtheir distance from this receiver. Not only does this prolongnetwork lifetime but also allows more nodes to communicateat the same time. In the proposed protocols the collisionavoidance information does not prevent interfering nodesfrom accessing the channel. Instead, it bounds thetransmission powers
 
of future packets generated by thesenodes. This is unlike the RTS/CTS packets used in the802.11 scheme.To understand what this collision avoidance information isand how nodes can make use of it, consider the transmissionof a packet from some node
i
to some node
 j
. Let
SINR (i,j)
 be the SINR at node
 j
for the desired signal from node
i
.Then,

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